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Safe Driving Tips



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Safe Driving Tips


Overview

Always be a defensive driver. Check your vehicle properly whether it is well maintained or not before driving. Avoid driving when you are tired because this can decrease your concentration level. To overcome tiredness, put off the road for some exercise and fresh air or have a cup of coffee. One more thing to remember is that never allow your emotions to dominte your driving.

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Snippets

• Concentrate on driving, not on passengers, mobile phones, or other distractions.

• Never overtake within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossing and never change the lane suddenly by cutting in front of another vehicles.

• Never mix Drink with Drive.

• National Maximum Speed Limit for a Light Motor Vehicle & a Transport Vehicle is 65 Km/Hr.

• Traffic Signal - Red is for STOP, green for GO and yellow for GET PREPARED, either to stop or to go.

• Violation of traffic rule is punishable and so also violation of Provisions of Motor Vehicles Act.


Driving Speed


Overview

What is driving speed? What is driving speed limit? Get answered to all these questions in this section. The speed while driving has been fixed by the Central Government, the authorised body. It has fixed Maximum Speed Limits for different classes of vehicles at a national level.

The State Governments have been authorised to fix the Minimum & /or Maximum Speed Limits provided that such maximum speed shall in no case exceed the maximum fixed for any motor vehicle or class or description of motor vehicles by Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette.

Motor Vehicle Act'88

No person shall drive a motor vehicle or cause or allow a motor vehicle to be driven in any public place at a speed exceeding the maximum speed or below the minimum speed fixed for the vehicle under the Act or by any other law for the time being in force.

Here we will discuss only the speed limit fixed by the Central Government at a national level. The following table will guide you to check the speed of your vehicle:

Class of Motor Vehicle


For all classes of Motor vehicles (including trailers, if any) the wheels are fitted with pneumatic tyres

National Maximum Speed Limit Km/Hr

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Vehicle without a Trailer

Light Motor Vehicle other than a Transport Vehicle - No speed limit

Light Motor Vehicle & a Transport Vehicle - 65 km/h.

Motor Cycle - 50 km/h.

Medium or Heavy Passenger Motor Vehicles - 65 km/h.

Medium or Heavy Goods Vehicle - 65 km/h.

Vehicle drawing a Semi-Trailer

Articulated Vehicle, which is Heavy Goods Vehicle or Heavy Passenger Motor Vehicle - 50 km/h.

Vehicle drawing not more than one Trailer ( two in case of Artillery equipment)

Light Motor Vehicle drawing a Single Trailer, the trailer being two wheeled and the gross vehicle weight of the trailer not exceeding 800 kilograms. - 60 km/h.

Light Motor Vehicle drawing a Single Trailer, the trailer has more than two wheels or a gross vehicle weight of the trailer not exceeding 800 kilograms. - 50 km/h.

Medium Goods Vehicle or Medium Passenger Motor Vehicle drawing a single Trailer. - 45 km/h.

Heavy Goods Vehicle or Heavy Passenger Motor Vehicle drawing a single Trailer and used by the Fire Brigade - 50 km/h.

Residual Category that is, any case not covered by any of the abovementioned categories - 30 km/h.


Vehicle Overtaking


Vehicle overtaking, also known as 'passing', is changing lanes or driving around another vehicle to move past a slower vehicle. Do not overtake other vehicle unless you are sure that you can do so without putting yourself in a danger position. In this section we will discuss about the procedures or the guidelines of overtaking.

Lane Designation and Vehicle Overtaking

On highways the speed of the lanes are designated. The fastest lane is the one closest to the center of the road and the slowest to the edge of the road. Usually the following features are common on highways:

• The lane designated for faster traffic is on the right.
• The lane designated for slower traffic is on the left.
• Most freeway exits are on the left.
• Overtaking is permitted to the right, and sometimes to the left.

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Vehicle Overtaking Tips

To overtake other vehicle or rather car overtaking as it is in lane driving, make sure that you are without danger to do so. Follow the undermentioned tips before overtaking:

• Use the right-turn indicator to signal that you want to overtake. Be sure the way ahead and behind is clear before overtaking.

• Check out for scooters or motor cycles that may be hidden from view in front of the vehicle you are about to overtake. Watch for vehicles in front that may be turning right.

• To overtake. Watch for vehicles in front that may be turning right. Immediately after overtaking, give indicator that you want to get back to the same lane. Get back to the previous lane when you can see all the front of the vehicle you are passing in your rear view mirror. Do not cut off a vehicle by suddenly moving in front of it.

• Never race if the vehicle you are passing speeds up. In this situation get back into your original lane.

Note:- Never overtake within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossing.

Changing Lanes

While driving on roads with more than one lane, lane changing may be required to overtake another vehicle, to avoid a parket vehicle or when the vehicle ahead slows to turn at an intersection. Proper signal or indicator is very important while changing lanes to ensure safe move.

Tips for Vehicle Overtaking in India:

• Check out for a space in traffic where you can enter safely.
• Check your blind spot by looking over your shoulder in the direction of the lane change. Give a signal or indicator in the direction you want to move
• Re-check to ensure the way is clear and that no one is coming at a fast speed from behind.
• Turn steadily into the new lane.

Note:- Never change the lane suddenly by cutting in front of another vehicles. Avoid lane change unless required and do not change in or near an intersection.

Vehicle Overtaking at Night

While overtaking at night be very careful. The following guidelines are very important to avoid any mishappen:

• As you approach a vehicle from behind, switch your headlights to low beams.
• To warn the driver ahead for overtaking switch your high beams on and off quickly.
• Check your mirrors and blind spot perfectly, and pull out to overtake. While moving beside the vehicle, switch on your high beams so that you can see more of the road ahead. Watch out for the vehicles that may be turning right in front of you.
• When you are able to see all of the front of the vehicle you are overtaking in your rear view mirror, pull back into the previous lane. Give indicator to ensure other drivers that you are getting back into the lane.

Vehicle Overtaking on the Left

Usually overtaking is done on the right. Passing on the left can be dangerous. Overtake from left only on multi-lane or on one-way roads. If the vehicle in front of you is turning right, you can overtake from left.


Drinking And Driving


" The teenager killed on the national highway with two other friends after losing control of the wheel as they returned from a party..." Even though we may have not been hit by a story such as this, yet, we all agree that drunk driving is a life risk act.

The task of a driver on the road is very tough. He has to overtake the slow moving vehicles, allow fast moving vehicles to overtake, move parallel to other in the adjacent lanes and coordinate with heterogeneous traffic that croses the road at random. Maintaining presence of mind is very important and many decisions is to be taken in a split of a second. A driver who is drunk cannot perform these tasks and would endanger traffic safety.

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Alcohol affects the Central Nervous System of a person. Even at BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) of 0.05 per cent the sense of judgement is impaired and the ability to control steering is affected. It is a truth that abuse of alcohol results in increased incidence of traumatic vehicular injuries and deaths.

What Drunken Driver Lacks

• Alertness in perceiving a danger in the road and reacting to it quickly.

• Accuracy of vision.

• A broad range of vision to take note of events taking place on either side of the road without turning head in either direction.

• Ability to perceive distance between two moving objects and their relative position in space.

• Capacity to distinguish accurately between three traffic light colours e.g. green, amber and red.

• Ability to drive the vehicle safely during night hours.

• Ability to recover the glare effect quickly.

Recommendations

Following recommendations are made for reducing accidents on Indian roads due to drunken driving:

• There is dire need to undertake experimental studies on drugs and driving for correct assessment of traffic safety situation on Indian roads.

• Blood alcohol screening should be routinely performed. Equipment to accurately measure blood alcohol concentration must be procured from other countries even if it is costly.

• Road side liquor shops, bars and 'ahatas' should be shifted elsewhere so that the same are inaccessible to drivers.

• Strict enforcement of Motor Vehicle Act on drunken driving is essential to check the same.

• Cost of alcohol beverages should be enhanced so that the drivers are unable to buy the same.

• Intensive drive against drunken driving is needed to promote road safety.

Blood Alcohol Level (BAL)

The effects of increasing BAL are cited below:

• .02 per cent - mellow feeling. slight body warmth. less inhibited.
• .05 per cent - noticeable relaxation. less alert. less self-focused. coordination impairment begins.
• .08 per cent - drunk driving limit. definite impairment in coordination and judgment.
• .10 per cent - noisy. possible embarrassing behavior. mood swings. reduction in reaction time.
• .15 per cent - impaired balance and movement. clearly drunk.
• .30 per cent - many lose consciousness.
• .40 per cent - most lose consciousness; some die.
• .50 per cent - breathing stops. many die.


Distractions While Driving


• Concentrate on driving, not on passengers, mobile phones, or other distractions.

• Don't drive in a distracted mood.

• Obey speed limits.

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• Maintain a safe distance from the vehicle ahead.

• When entering a roadway or changing lanes, allow other drivers to maintain speed.

• Drive in the right or middle lane. Pass on the left.

• Signal several hundred feet before turning or changing lanes.

• Stop at stop signs and red lights. Don't run yellow lights.

• Respect pedestrian right-of-way in cross walks.

• Don't block intersections.

• Use your horn sparingly and only to remind others of your presence.

• Don't drink and drive.


Traffic Rules


• Keep on your left, allowing the vehicles from the opposite direction to pass.

• Give way to traffic on your right, especially at road junctions and round abouts.

• While turning either left or right, give way to vehicles going straight.

• While turning left, keep to the left side and turn close to the left side of the road to which you enter.

Slow down at the junctions, intersections and pedestrian crossings. Also slow down near school zones, temple areas etc., where a lot of pedestrians and vehicle traffic move. Give signals before you make any manoeuvre, indicating your intention, so that the other road users can adjust accordingly.

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• Always use a helmet if on a two-wheeler and always check that the strap is fixed properly.

• Stick to the given speed limit and remember that speed limit is related to the traffic condition.

• Keep enough distance from the vehicle ahead to avoid collision.

Yellow lines should not be crossed under any condition.

• At junctions or intersections, never park the vehicle beyond the stop line.

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• At pedestrian crossings always remember that the pedestrian has the right of way.

• At the signal, do not stop your vehicle on the Pedestrian Crossing.

• Two-wheelers are meant only for two. Third person is not allowed, even children.

• Do not start your vehicle on the amber light. Wait for the light to turn green.

• Overtake only from the right side of a vehicle. Never overtake on bridges, narrow roads, junctions, school zones and pedestrian crossings.

• Do not drive in a zig-zag manner.


Traffic Lights


Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals or stop light, is a signalling device that is positioned at a road intersection, pedestrian crossing, or other location to indicate when it is safe to drive, ride, or walk using a universal color code.

In general, traffic signal have two main lights, red and green. In India yellow (or amber) is also included to mean 'prepare to stop.' To support for people with red-green color blindness, red light contains some orange in its hue and green contains blue.

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Red

The color 'red' on the signal light indicates to stop well before the stop line and not to crowd the intersection. Turn left in a red signal only when there is a sign to do so. While turning, yield the right of way to pedestrians and vehicles coming from other directions.

Amber (Yellow)

The amber (or yellow) light indicates to clear the road when the signal is changing from green to red. If, by mistake, caught in the amber signal in the middle of a large road crossing, continue with care and do not accelerate in panic.

Green

The signal light 'green' set you to go but be careful while on the start of move. Check whether vehicles from other directions have cleared the road. Suppose you want to turn left or right, check the signal whether it allows or not separately. If yes, turn but yield the right of way to pedestrians and vehicles from other directions.

Steady Green Arrow Signal

This indicates to proceed with caution in the direction the arrow points. Remember to yield to all pedestrians and vehicles already in the intersection.

Flashing Red Signal

Flashing red means to come to a complete stop. Do not forget to yield to all other traffic and to pedestrians. Proceed only when the way is clear.

Flashing Amber Signal

Flashing amber indicates to slow down and proceed with caution.


Auto Parking


Basic Parking Rules

• Do not park any vehicle on the part of a road where traffic is flowing. Drive the vehicle off the road onto the shoulder while stopping.

• Do not park in such a place where one do not have a clear view for at least 50 meters in both the directions.

• Do not park in a place that blocks a vehicle already parked, a sidewalk, crosswalk, pedestrian crossing or road entrance.

• Do not park near the public entrance to a hotel, theatre or public hall when it is open to the public.

• Do not park near any intersection or a round-about.

• Before opening the door of the parked vehicle, look around. Close the door the moment one gets down.

• Park the vehicle on the left side in the direction of the traffic.

Note: After parking, turn off the ignition and the lights.

Parallel Parking

The term parallel parking means parking the vehicle in a line i.e. front to rear. The parking area should be one and half times longer than the vehicle to be parked. Check the following rules for parallel parking:

• Slowly reverse into the space provided for parking, turning the steering wheel anti-clockwise. Take care that you have cleared the vehicle ahead.

• After seeing the outside rear corner of the vehicle in front of your space, turn the steering wheel clockwise. Do not forget to look back so that you do not hit the vehicle already parked behind you.

• Bring the vehicle in line with the curb.

• If the vehicle is not parallel to the curb, drive forward to straighten. Make sure the wheels of the car are straight.

• After the vehicle is properly parked, pull the handbrake and shift into first or reverse gear. Turn off the engine and remove the key from the ignition.

• Check the traffic before opening door of the vehicle.

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Angular

The term angular parking means parking the vehicle at an angle to the curb of the road. The following basic rules is to be followed in angular parking.

• First and foremost look through the mirrors and over the shoulder for traffic behind you.

• Give the left indicator to signal to the vehicle behind that you intend to park the vehicle.

• Steer into the provided parking space and straighten the wheels.

• Keep equal distance on both the sides, pull the handbrake and shift into first or reverse gear.

For Exit: Look through the rear view mirrors and over the shoulder, if the way is clear then reverse slowly. Check that there is no vehicle, take extra care of cycles, rickshaws and pedestrians.

Perpendicular Parking

By perpendicular parking it means that parking at right angle of the road curb. Always reverse the vehicle in the parking space so that you can exit comfortably.

• Pass ahead of the parked vehicle next to available space.

• Look through the rear view mirrors and over the shoulder for clear traffic.

• Turn the steering anti-clockwise and reverse slowly until you are in the centre of the parking space.

• Close the window and lock the vehicle.

For Exit: Move the vehicle very slowly in order to get a clear view of the road. Look on both the sides, indicate and move the vehicle out.

Parking at Night

Try to park vehicles in a lighted place at night. If it is complete dark, turn the parking light on.

Precautions While Passing Parked Vehicles

• Be careful while passing by a parked vehicle. Never open the door without looking.

• Beaware, a child might be playing and can come in front of your vehicle hiddenly.

Roadside Stop

In an emergency, if you have to stop by the side of the road, make sure the stop is very short.

• Give signal that you want to pull over and check your mirrors and blind spot to see when the way is clear.

• Steer to the side of the road, stopping very close to the curb or edge of the road.

• Put on the four way emergency lights.

• Apply handbrakes.

What Not to Do while Parking

Do not park:

• On a foot path.
• Near traffic crossing, round-about or a turn.
• On the main road.
• Where your vehicle obstructs traffic.
• On wrong side of the road.
• Where parking is prohibited.


First Aid Kit


Basic Aims of First Aid Kit

What should be the main purpose of first aid kit. Know the basic aims of the kit here.

• To save life.

• To protect the casualty from getting more harm.

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• To reduce pain

Note: It is necessary to keep a first Aid kit while driving.

First Aid Kit
• Extra-strength non-aspirin tablets • Gauze dressing pads
• Ibuprofen tablets • Elbow & knee plastic bandage
• Motion sickness tablets • Fingertip fabric bandages
• Burn relief gel pack • Knuckle fabric bandages
• Antibiotic ointment packs • Patch plastic bandage
• Alcohol cleansing pads • Junior adhesive plastic bandages
• Antiseptic cleansing wipes • Adhesive plastic bandages
• Finger splint • Exam quality vinyl gloves
• First aid tape roll • Cotton tipped applicators
• Butterfly wound closures • Medium safety pins
• Instant cold compress • Scissors
• Sterile eye pad • Call police banner
• Non-stick pad • Accident report form
• Conforming gauze roll bandage • First Aid Guide
• Trauma pad



Driving Emergencies


Driving should be done very carefully. While driving you should also be aware of driving emergencies. Car driving emergencies tips should be known to everybody. It helps to overcome any type of accidents during emergencies.

This section deals with safety tips during emergencies. Check out yourself and know what to do when the tyre bursts or in case the steering cease to work. Be a smart driver and keep all these measures at your finger tips.

Tips for Emergencies

The following explains you about what to do when its is a brake failure while driving, how to overcome situation of steering failure, if tyre bursts how to keep the vehicle in control and lots more.

In case of Brake failure

Brakes are the most important part of any vehicle. When it fails all of a certain people generally tend to panic. Don't do that. Follow the tips given below and try to keep it on your finger tips.

• First do not panic; when you panic, you cannot take correct action.
• Take your foot off the accelerator and rapidly change gear down.
• Use hand brake.
• Steer to the side.

In case of Steering failure

When steering cease to work while driving, it can be the worst situation. Follow the given tips and never get panic.

• Reduce speed
• Apply brakes

In case of Tyre burst

If tyre bursts while driving it is very tough to have a control over the steering. This can lead to a serious accident. What to do in such situation, check out here.

• Hold the steering wheel tight to control the pulling and halt the car quickly.

In case of Skidding

It can occur due to bad tyres, due to spilt oil on roads and wet surface in rainy weather. It can also occur when you apply sudden brake or take a sharp fast turn.

• While it is skidding do not apply brake but gently steer in the direction in which it is pulling.

Precautions to be taken at intersections

Check out here what precautions are to be taken at intersections. Intersection is a place where accidents tend to happen.

• At intersections, stop, look and then enter.
• Always give way for traffic on the main road.
• At the intersection of two main roads give way to traffic coming from your right.
• At all round abouts, traffic on the right has preference.


Vehicle Papers


What are vehicle papers? What automotive papers to carry while you are on drive? Know what auto paper in India to carry? Learn everything in details here in this section because while on the move, it is very important to keep the necessary papers in the vehicle for the purpose of being checked by the traffic police or otherwise required at any time. The following are the necessary documents to be kept in the non-transport vehicle:

• Proof of valid certificate of registration

• Proof of valid certificate of insurance

• Proof of payment of tax

• P.U.C Transport Vehicles

• Proof of tax payment

Fitness certificate

• Permit

• P.U.C certificate

• Insurance cover note, tax payment receipt and renewal of registration certificate (if required) are valid evidence.

• Xerox copies of the original documents (attested by a gazetted officer) are also acceptable. However if the demanding authority wants to see the original documents, the owner must produce them within 15 days.

• A Xerox copy of the driving license is not acceptable

In case the driving license is confiscated or submitted to the authorities, the receipt given against that works in lieu of the license. So it should also be carried with the vehicle and in original form.



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