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General

Fire Fighting



FireFighting
Nowadays Fire is a common and Frequent Hazard in Daily Life, because a fire which starts unseen as small flickers of flame may grow at such a pace that it can quickly get out of hand.
This is due to carelessness, Ignorance, Lack of Knowledge, Stupidity, Unavailability of Proper fire fighting extinguishers.
This course is prepared in such a manner a Person can easily understand:
What is Fire?, How to detect a fire?, What is the exact procedure to fight against of fire?, What is correct procedure to use fire extinguishers?, What is fire prevention? and more.


Contents :-

Introduction & History


History of Fire Fighting


Introduction
Fire is the most common hazard which we face in industries, homes, and office premises. While complete and proper procedure of training and awareness can minimize the chances of an accidental fire to almost safe considerations, we must still be very much prepared to deal with a fire emergency in case it occurs. This document aims to teaches the basics about fire fighting techniques and equipments -- proper types, how to use them, when and where to use them and when not to use them, as along with the proper procedures to follow if a fire occurs.

Disclaimer:
This tutorial contains guidance about fire fighting techniques and equipments and a basic idea of how to fight against fire. It is not meant to be a comprehensive reference. There are many circumstances that cannot be foreseen and the inherent danger in relying solely on this information for combating fire should be understood.

HISTORY OF FIRE FIGHTING
The American Fire Control Board fire fighting team is exists from the first century B.C. Ancient Rome too had a fire department with close to 7000 paid fire fighters. The fire brigades responded and fought not only fires, but also patrolled the cities with the power to impose punishment upon those violating fire-prevention codes. The first fire pump was invented in 200 B.C. by inventor Ctesibius of Alexandria. In 1648 Governor Peter Stuyvesant of New Amsterdam (New York City) was appointed as a fire inspector with the power to impose fines for fire code of conduct. In 1672 leather hose and couplings for joining lengths of pipe together were produced, leather hose had to be sewn like a fine boot. Boston (MA) imported the first fire engine in America in 1679. Inventor Thomas Lote of New York City built the first fire engine made in America in 1743. A steam fire engine was built in London in 1829. Fabric and rubber-treated hose did not come into general use until 1870. But the fire companies of the day were very slow to accept these rapid advances in the field. Modern equipments are usually diesel powered and many variations of the basic fire engine have enabled firefighters to respond to many types of emergency situation, prevalent in these industrial times.


Definition of Fire


Fire can be defined as an external sign of chemical reaction, usually with the combination of hydrocarbons with oxygen, resulting in the release of energy. To start the action it is necessary to apply a flame or a spark, having a certain amount of energy value, to a material that has been raised to a certain threshold temperature sufficient to release inflammable gases, which conduct the continuation of fire; or else to raise the substance to its auto ignition temperature or the temperature where spontaneous combustion of the liberated gases occurs. Once the fire has started, the heat energy released is available to raise the temperature of a greater amount of the substance to that of combustion, so the amount of gases liberated from the burning material increase and fire spreads more rapidly. If the temperature is close to self-ignition, less amount of energy is required to cause the combustion, and fire will appear to break out at points at some distance from the main fire. However the air/fuel ratio limits the rate at which different substances will burn and limitation of air will cause long tongues of flame to reach out searching for the air required, once given a good start and plenty of combustible material. Incomplete combustion can result in the formation of gas pockets, which may explode in case air suddenly becomes available, whilst heated hydrocarbon, if lacking air, will decompose and form sooty particles characteristic of thick, black smoke. It can be seen that there are three elements required for the propagation of fire.

There are three things that result in fire or combustion:
1. Combustible material
2. Oxygen the fuel sources, and
3. Ignition Source, the heat source.


Principle of Fire


The fire fighting principle rests on the basis of the removal of one of the sides of the fire triangle, fire tetrahedron or fire square.

For example: -
Fire starts when paper or wood comes in contact of flame or heat in presence of oxygen, a fuel source.

We have to take the following steps to control this fire:
1. Remove the source of fuel by marking a boundary or removing the fuel itself.
2. Remove oxygen by obstructing the air or oxygen supply.
3. Remove heat or flame by supplying water or fire extinguisher against fire.

Fire stands for:
FIND the fire, the location, and its size.

INFORM person in charge.
• If there is a general alarm system then raise the alarm.
• Make a call to the nearest fire control party.
• Activate emergency firefighting equipment.


RESTRICT the fire.
• De-energize electrical systems in the affected space.
• Set fire boundaries to confine the fire.
• Shut-off ventilation.
• Prior to activating fixed extinguishing system, ensure evacuation from the area.


EXTINGUISH the fire.
• Determine the class of fire (explained later), appropriate equipment and extinguishing agent to be used and plan the method of extinguishing.

If unable to control fire, prepare to abandon the location.


Safe Fire Fighting & Practice


Fire Prevention Tips
Fires and burns are the third leading cause of unintentional home injury and related deaths. Fire safety and survival begins with everyone being prepared. Following the below mentioned safety measures reduces the chance of fire:

Fire Safety At Home
Safe fire practice and awareness at home are a part of a fire protection plan and it is also critical to be prepared to react quickly in case a fire occurs at home.

Safe Fire Fighting and Practice
• An hour of planning may save years of life. Practice fire.

• Make sure the home/office has at least one smoke alarm on every floor. They will give time to escape in case of fire.

• Make sure everyone knows the ways out of each room.

• A window can be used as an exit. Make sure windows and screens can be easily removed from inside, in case you need to escape a fire.

• Folding escape ladders may be needed in higher buildings. In an emergency, take caution when escaping down a stairway. It might become a chimney for smoke, hot gas, and fire.

• Don’t jump in panic from a high window. Stay in the room with the door closed and the window slightly open. Hang a sheet out the window to show rescuers your location. Sit on the floor to avoid breathing in smoke.

• A hot door is a warning. Feel the door before opening it and look to keep the room, kitchen, and basement doors closed at night to act as a barrier, in case of fire.

• Never go back into a burning building for any reason!

FIRE FIGHTING STRATEGY
Inspect and review:
1. The scene of fire as rapidly as possible.

2. Assess the nature of fire by determining its intensity and extent.

3. The type and abundance of fuel.

4. The danger of entering the fire area.

5. Most effective techniques for extinguishing the fire.

6. Location and rescuing endangered person.

7. Containing the fire and protecting adjacent areas.

8. Ventilation of the fire area to allow for the escape of heat and toxic gases.

9. Finally extinguishing the fire.

In case your clothing is on fire (and the floor is not), drop and roll on the ground to extinguish the flames. If you are within a few feet of a safety shower or a fire blanket, use these instead, but do not try to run if you are on fire. If one of your coworkers catches fire and runs down the hallway in panic, tackle them and extinguish the fire in their clothing.


Theory of Fires


Element of Fires


There are three Elements which results Fire or Combustion
• Combustible material
• Oxygen, the fuel sources, and
• Ignition Source, the heat source.

Combustible Material
Combustible material is one which acts as a fuel source for fire, i.e., paper, wood, clothes, any solid combustible material like gasoline, kerosene, grease, tar, fingernail polish, magnesium, sodium, potassium, titanium or aluminum, cooking oil, vegetable oil, etc

Oxygen
Oxygen which is the most common factor and is available everywhere.

Ignition Source
Ignition source or heat source means flame, spark which ignites sufficient heat or Flame for a combustion or fire.

Here is an easy way to understand what is fire by fire triangle & by fire square (nuclear fire).

Fire Triangle
FIRE TRIANGLE it is an easy way to understand what is fire. It also gives a clear idea what the primary action is required against fire.

The Above Three Condition can be represented by a Triangle Known as “FIRE TRIANGLE”

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So once any fuel Source like flame, small spark, any flickers, or any heat source come in contact of any combustible substance in the presence of oxygen combustion or fire takes place.

Fire Square

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Condition of Fires


Condition of fire depends on three things as we have previously read, i.e.
• presence of material that acts as fuel/combustible substance
• a source of heat/ignition
• the pressure of oxygen in the form of fire

Fire extinction in principle; consist in the limitation of one or more of these factors. The methods of extinguishing fire may be classified under the following headings:-
• Starving
• Smothering
• Cooling
• Inhibition or retarding of the combustion reaction

Starvation
Starvation is achieved by removal of the fuel burning in the fire. Sometimes combustible material can be removed by shutting off gas valves or fuel flows.

SMOTHERING
By excluding the oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere the fire will be extinguished.

COOLING
The most commonly used fire fighting medium is water. Water absorbs heat from the fire and cools the fuel to a temperature where it no longer produces flammable vapors.

STOP CHAIN REACTION
Stopping or interrupting the chain reaction between the fuel, heat, and oxygen will extinguish the fire. Specific methods of extinguishing fires often involve a combination of more than one of the four principles



Properties of Flammable Materials


Flammability
Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn. Vapors given off by a flammable material can burn when mixed with air in right proportion, in the presence of an ignition source.

Ignition Point
It is the lowest temperature to which a flammable substance must be heated for it to ignite.

Flash Point
It is the lowest temperature at which the vapors of a substance are available in sufficient quantity to produce a momentary flash when a flame is applied.

Fire Point
It is the temperature at which the heat from the combustion for burning vapour is capable of producing sufficient vapour to enable combustion continues.

Spontaneous Ignition Temperature
It is the lowest temperature, at which the substance will ignite spontaneously, i.e., the substance will burn without the introduction of a flame or other ignition sources.

Upper Flammable Limit
It is that concentration of flammable vapour in air below which there is insufficient flammable vapour to support and propagate combustion.

Auto Ignition
It is the ignition of a flammable material without the assistance of an external pilot source.

Flammable Range
It is the range of concentration of flammable vapour in air within which the vapour and air mixture is flammable.

Static Electricity
It is the electricity produces on dissimilar materials through physical contact and separation, for example, a sampling apparatus lowered in to a tank containing charged petroleum liquid.

Reactivity
It is the property of most materials to enter into a chemical reaction with each other. Combustion is a chemical reaction in which heat and light are involved. Fire from combustion is said to be the result of a rapid oxidation reaction at temperature above 730? C accompanied by the evolution of highly heated gaseous products of combustion and the emission of visible and invisible radiation.

The Following reaction is an example of combustion (reaction with atmospheric oxygen)
C + O2 = CO2 (carbon dioxide)
2C2 + O = 2CO (carbon monoxide)
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O (water)


The diagram below shows the relation between oxygen and gases, and compares with lower flammable limit and upper flammable limit:

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Fuel, Heat and Oxygen


The three ingredients that cause fires are heat, oxygen, and combustible material. When all three components are present, combustion takes place.
• Combustible material (Fuel).
• Ignition Source (Heat).
• Oxygen.

Fuel
Fuel or combustible material, which acts as a fuel source for fire, i.e., paper, wood, clothes, any solid combustible material, fiber, textile fiber, gasoline, kerosene, grease, tar, fingernail polish, magnesium, sodium, potassium, titanium or aluminum, cooking oil, vegetable oil, etc.

Heat
Ignition source or heat source means flame, spark which ignites sufficient heat, or flame for combustion or fire.

Oxygen
Oxygen which is the most common factor and is available everywhere in the form of air.

An explosion is defined as the process in which combustion occurs and spreads rapidly so as to create a high pressure. In this case, the fire expands from a source of ignition and develops high pressure when restricted in an area.

Explosions have lower and upper limits (of dust concentration). A lower limit of explosion indicates that the concentration of dust particles is below the lower limit of explosion. Below this level, the dust concentration will not explode even on ignition. This happens because the heat produced under such circumstances is not sufficient to affect other dust particles. Alternatively, there could be a dust concentration of explosive levels but there may not be enough oxygen to start the fire. To counter the hazards of fire and explosions, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the dust. For example, fine aluminum dust explodes at very low limits of explosion whereas coarse aluminum dust does not catch fire even under the influence of another source of heat.


Fire Hazards


Fire hazard is a situation in which there is a risk of harm to people or property due to fire. Fire hazards can take the form of various ways that fires can easily start, such as a blocked cooling vent or overloaded electrical system, ways fires can spread rapidly, such as an insufficiently protected fuel store or areas with high oxygen concentrations, or things which, in a fire, pose a hazard to people, such as materials that produce toxic fumes when heated or blocked fire exits.

The Indian Fire Protection Association reports 85% of fire deaths occur in the home, making fire prevention a top priority in every home.

Electrical hazards
• Damaged wiring.
• Damaged plugs.
• Damp or wet wires.
• Overloaded motors.
• Broken switches, outlets, or sockets.
• Problems with lighting fixtures.
• Faulty heating elements.
• Overloaded circuits.
• Liquids near computers.
• Computers without surge protectors.

Housekeeping hazards
• Piles of scrap, waste materials, and trash.
• Sawdust, metal or plastic powder that can form an explosive mixture with air.
• Obstructed aisles.
• Blocked emergency exits.
• Material covering up fire extinguishers, exit signs, and alarms.
• Blocked sprinkler heads.

Friction hazards • Hot bearings.
• Misaligned or broken machine parts.
• Choking or jamming materials.
• Poor adjustment of moving parts.
• Inadequate lubrication.

Process or operation-related hazards
• Cutting and welding operations, which use open flames and produce sparks.
• Molten metal, which can ignite combustibles or fall into cracks and start a fire that might not erupt until after the work is done.
• Processes that heat materials to high temperatures.
• Drying operations where materials in dryers can overheat.
• Grinding operations that produce sparks and dust.
• Processes in which flammable vapors are released.

Storage hazards
• Material stacked too high blocking sprinkler heads (need 18-inches clearance from head).
• Flammable or combustible material stored too close to heat sources.
• Flammable materials not stored in special containers and cabinets. Inadequate ventilation in storage areas.
• Material that might react with one another stored together.
• Material stored in damaged containers
• Material stored in unlabeled containers
• Containers not tightly sealed

Smoking hazards
• Ignoring "No Smoking" signs.
• Smoking around flammable or combustible materials.
• Throwing matches and cigarettes or cigars on tables or workbenches.
• Tossing butts on the floor or grass without properly extinguishing them in an ashtray or ash can.
• Tossing lighted butts or matches out windows or doors.
• Smoking in bed.
• Leaving a cigarette/cigar unattended.
• Smoking in areas where there is an accumulation of sawdust, plastic or metal powders that may become explosive.

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Classification of Fires & Appropriate Extinguishing Agents


Class A Fire
Class A fire contains carbonaceous material (carbon contaminated material), like wood, fibrous materials, paper, furnishing materials etc.
So the suitable extinguishing agent for Class A fire is water and only water, so the person on the spot has to follow the following procedure: -

First:
If a person encounters Class A fire the first thing he is should do is anyhow inform his office mates, friends or any person who is available in that location by any medium.

Second:
Inform the nearest fire brigade or fire fighting team, meanwhile the person in charge can make a team and try to cut off the fuel supply (burning material) or provide a sufficient amount of water against the fire as soon as, and in sufficient amount.

Class B Fire
Class B fire has different categories: -

For volatile petroleum fire:

Volatile petroleum means whose flash point (flash point is the lowest temperature at which the vapors of a substance are available in sufficient quantity to produce a momentary flash when a flame is applied.) is below 60? C, like petrol, oil, solvents, paint and waxes. So suitable extinguishing agent for such kind of fire is foam extinguisher, CO2 or dry powder extinguishers and hence the person on the spot has to follow the following procedure: -

First:
If a person encounters class B fire the first thing he should do is anyhow inform his mates, friends or the any person who is available in that location by any medium.

Second:
Inform the nearest fire brigade or fire fighting team, meanwhile the person in charge can make a team and try to make a boundary for burning liquid and if there is CO2 or Dry Powder or foam extinguishers then he can utilize extinguishers in a proper manner against the fire.

For Nonvolatile petroleum Fires:
Nonvolatile petroleum means whose flash point is below 60? C and above, like alcohol.

Suitable extinguishing agents for such kind of fire are Foam extinguisher, CO2 or dry powder extinguishers and the person on the spot has to follow the procedure similar to the case of volatile fire.

For Chemicals or Paint Fires:
This kind of fires contains very light flash point.
Suitable extinguishing agents for such kind of fire are foam extinguisher, CO2 or dry powder extinguishers and the person on the spot has to follow the above described procedure.

Class C Fires:
A class C fire is one of the most common fires in industries, offices, and households, etc, .i.e., electrical fires. This kind of fire occurs due to short circuit, circuits switch board, radio or electrical equipment or due to overloading, spark etc. It involves energized electrical equipment, where a nonconducting gaseous (clean agent or smothering) agent is needed. Once the electrical power is taken away, the fire goes back to class A or B fire. Electrical fires are not considered to constitute a fire class on their own, as electricity is a source of ignition that will feed the fire until removed, when the electrical supply has been isolated the fire can be treated generally. However, we should always isolate the electrical supply before fighting the fire. If this is not possible then a nonelectrical conducting extinguishing agent is to be used regardless of the power status on all occasions.

Some electrical equipment can store, in capacitors, lethal voltage, even if their power supply has been isolated, we have to always use extinguishers containing nonelectrical equipment such as CO2, dry powder firefighting extinguishers.

Class D Fire:
Class D fire involves combustible metals such as magnesium, sodium, potassium, titanium, and aluminum. In such cases water is generally ineffective or even dangerous.

This type of fire occurs in chemical industries, laboratory etc. Special dry powder is produced for class D fire, particularly those involving alkali metal such as sodium and potassium. These dry powders extinguish metal fires by flushing the powder to form a crust, which excludes oxygen from surface of the molten. A specific agent is added to prevent from sinking into the surface of the molten material.

Class E Fire:
Class E fire involves in commercial cooking appliances with vegetable oils, animal oils, or fats at high temperatures. This kind of fire occurs in large catering kitchens, restaurants and takeaway establishments, etc. This fire is difficult to extinguish because of high auto ignition temperature.
Conventional extinguishers are not effective for cooking oil fires, as they do not cool sufficiently or may even cause flash back, thereby putting the operator at risk. This fire needs extinguishers containing a specially formulated wet chemical, which when applied to the burning liquid cools and emulsifies the oil, extinguishing the flame, sealing the surface and preventing re-ignition.



Discover of Fires


R. - Rescue anyone in danger. Follow the evacuation plan. Account for all person under the circumstance.

A. - Alert
• Activate fire alarm.
• Direct fire department to the fire area.
Note:
In case of fire alarm failure, use intercom system or portable radio or verbal communication.

C. - Confine the fire.
Close the doors.

E.- Extinguish the fire, if possible by (trained staff.)

If You Can't Evacuate During a Fire:
• Close the room using wet clothing or towels to stuff around cracks in doors and seal up vents. Close doors and protect yourself against smoke.

• Use Water keeping a wet cloth over you nose and mouth; breathe through nose only. Wet down walls, doors, and windows.

• Signal for help by calling the building management for help, if you have no phone, signal at the window for help.

• Do not break windows as flames and smoke can travel back into the house from the outside. If you need air, open the window a crack, but be ready to close it immediately.

• Don’t jump; wait to be rescued, if you are above the second floor. By remaining calm, you increase your chances of survival!


Examples of Fires



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Source of Heat Energy


Chemical Heat Energy
• Heat of combustion.
• Heat of partial oxidation.
• Heat of decomposition (onion, potato, etc. in charge hold).
• Heat of solution (mix of two chemicals).

Electrical Heat Energy
• Resistance heating.
• Dielectric heating.
• Induction heating.

Mechanical Heat Energy
• Friction heating.
• Frictional sparks.
• Heat of compression.


Source of Ignition in Domestic


• Heated surface.
• Cloth, newspaper on hot surface.
• Faulty machineries, electrical fittings, etc.
• Sparks (lighter, grinding, welding, cutting, funnel, etc).
• Electrical overloading/Heating.
• Impact spark (tool falling down to tank etc).
• Static sparks (removal of nylon banian etc).
• Spontaneous combustion.

THE FOUR STAGES OF COMBUSTION
Except explosions, most fires have quite humble beginnings and grow through four stages:-
• Incipient Stage - At this stage, decomposition is occurring at the surface of the fuel due to the influence of some form of heat. Products of combustion given off at this stage are invisible to the eye.

• Smoldering Stage - At this stage, up to 10% of the decomposing product released at the surface of the fuel are visible.

• Flaming Stage - Vapors from the decomposing fuel has ignited and is at the stage where flames are self propagating.

• Heat Stage - At this stage the burning has progressed to the point where the fire is still small but generating sufficient heat to warm the air immediately around the fire, sending warm products of combustion upwards by convection.

The time required for a fire to develop through the first two stages is usually quite long when compared to the last two. Depending on conditions, the time involved going through all stages may be anything from seconds to days.


Fire Prevention


Fire Prevention Principle


Fire protection and prevention
The power of fire has led to the adoption of fire codes, regulation and life safety codes and complete fire fighting services to extinguish or contain uncontrolled fires across the world. Firefighters are trained to use fire trucks, water supply resources such as water mains and fire hydrants, and an array of other equipment to combat the spread of fires.

To ensure that buildings are safe from fire, all building products, materials, and furnishings must be tested for fire resistance, combustibility and flammability before they can be used in construction. The same applies to upholstery, carpeting, and plastics used in vehicles and vessels. Buildings, especially schools and tall buildings should conduct fire drills often to inform and prepare citizens on how to react to a building fire.

In the case of fire, there is no doubt that prevention is better than cure. True fire prevention lies in recognizing a fire hazard and, if possible, removing it or at least reducing its potential.

One of the ideas that we would like to encourage is that of a Forum or Safety Committee and one of the tasks they could undertake is to consider the fire risks that exist onboard and to make sure sources of ignition in Ships and prevention.

Flame or Smoldering Source:
Careless disposal of lighted matches and cigarettes; prevention by the provision of ashtrays of an approved design. Smoking in bed, care at galley fire.

Hot Surface:
What may be termed “black heat,” is not generally realized that the heat from an ordinary electric bulb can soon put the temperature above the SIT of some materials if that heat is not allowed to dissipate by normal convection currents. Dishcloths or newspapers left on electric hotplates or hot surfaces, paint or oil on hot surfaces are examples fire due to hot surface. A fire may be prevented by considering where the oil would spray from any burst pipe and fitting deflector plates over steam pipes and diesel exhaust pipes. General care must be taken in the maintenance of machinery, pump-gland, etc. which would overheat if faulty.

Spark and Incentive Particles:
Funnel spark, friction, and mechanical sparks from grinding cutting, chipping or welding, electrical sparks from switches, faulty brush gear or short circuiting. Particular care should be taken in gaseous conditions where even a torch may be unsafe. Gas- tight switches should have good gaskets, and flame arrestors kept in good repair.

Electrical:
Any wiring which is overloaded will become overheated; correct flushing is important wiring in places difficult of access must be inspected and be on the lookout for unauthorized wiring.

Spontaneous combustion:
Contamination with natural oils or rotting due to dampness are main culprits. So good housekeeping is essential at everyplace.

Static electricity in gaseous condition:
importance of electricity bonding all tools and appliances steam, C02, or high pressure cleaning jets in flammable atmosphere.

Once a fire is ignited, its spread will depend on the availability of loose combustible material. The importance of good housekeeping cannot be overstressed; in the same way oil should not be allowed to accumulate. There should be steel bins for waste, which should be frequently emptied.

The security of possible sources of ignition of flammable materials during heavy weather should also be considered.

Fire protection is the prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with fires. It involves the study of the behavior, compartmentalization, suppression, and investigation of fire and its related emergencies as well as the research and development, production, testing, and application of mitigating systems. In structures, be they land-based, offshore or even ships, the owners and operators are responsible to maintain their facilities in accordance with a design-basis that is rooted in laws, including the local building code and fire code, which are enforced by the authority. Buildings must be constructed in accordance with the version of the building code that is in effect when an application for a building permit is made. Building inspectors check on compliance of a building under construction with the building code. Once construction is complete, a building must be maintained in accordance with the current fire code, which is enforced by the fire prevention officers of a local fire department. In the event of fire emergencies, firefighters, fire investigators, and other fire prevention personnel should be called to mitigate, investigate, and learn from the damage of a fire. Lessons learned from fires are applied to the authoring of both building codes and fire codes.

Fire protection has three major goals:
• Life safety (minimum standard in fire and building codes).
• Property protection (typically an insurance requirement, or a regulatory requirement where the protection of building components is necessary to enable life safety).
• Continuity of operations (typically an insurance requirement or an item of self-motivation for building owners - not a regulatory issue). Interruption of operations due to fire damage can be very costly. For instance, a nuclear reactor may cost about one million US dollars per day, if it is not making power that is being sold.

Structural fire protection (in land-based buildings) is typically achieved via three means.
Passive fire protection (use of integral, fire-resistance rated wall and floor assemblies that are used to form fire compartments intended to limit the spread of fire, or occupancy separations, or firewalls to keep fires, high temperatures and flue gases within the fire compartment of origin, thus enabling firefighting and evacuation).

Active fire protection (manual and automatic detection and suppression of fires, as in finding the fire (fire alarm) and/or extinguishing it).

Education (ensuring that building owners and operators have copies and a working understanding of the applicable building and fire codes, having a purpose-designed fire safety plan and ensuring that building occupants, operators, and emergency personnel know the building, its means of active fire protection and passive fire protection, its weak spots and strengths to ensure the highest possible level of safety).

If any one of the three components of fire protection fails, the fire safety plan can be immediately and severely compromised. For example, if the fire-stop systems in a structure were inoperable, a significant part of the fire safety plan would not work in the event of a fire. Since the overall plan depends on all pieces, it is important to see that each item is in fact functional. Likewise, if there were a sprinkler system or an alarm system, but it is down for lack of knowledgeable maintenance, or if building occupants prop open a fire door and then run a carpet through, the likelihood of damage and casualties is markedly increased. It is vital for everyone to realize that fire protection within a structure is a system that relies on all of its components.

There are many things that can and often do go wrong prior to, and during the construction of a building. What happens afterwards, however, can also be substantially hazardous, to the point of entirely defeating the fire protection plan that was put in place during the design-phase of a building. Common operator errors include, but are not limited to, the following: failure to regularly clean grease ducts in commercial kitchens (usually every 3 - 6 months), re-entering fire stops without proper repairs, damaging and removing spray fireproofing from structural steel elements, changing of the use or occupancy of parts of a building. Any changes that affect the overall fire protection plan, however small they may appear to the layman, legally require the owner to either gain the approval of the fire prevention officer at the municipal fire department or to apply for a building permit with the local, municipal building department. The permit fee is intended to cover the time and expenses for the authority to evaluate the contemplated change against applicable code requirements. Failure to obtain such approvals makes the owner vulnerable to charges of negligence and culpability in a court of law.


Safe Practice


Cooking equipment

Cooking is the number one cause of home fires.
• All appliances at home clean should be kept clean and wipe surfaces after spill.

• Wear tight-fitting clothes when cooking.

• Keep inflammable objects at least three feet away from the stove.

• Wood and coal stoves, fireplaces, chimneys, and all other solid-fueled heating equipments should be inspected regularly and cleaned accordingly.

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• Make sure microwaves have enough room to breathe, and that all the vents are cleared of obstructions.

• In the case of a microwave fire, keep the door closed and unplug the microwave. Make sure to have the microwave oven serviced before using it again.

• In case of an oven fire, keep the door closed and turn off the power supply. If the fire doesn't go out immediately, call the fire department.

• Grease fire occurs when oily or greasy food is heated and ignites. The simplest way to fight this is to carefully slide a lid over the pan. Turn off the burner, don't move the pan, and keep the lid on until the pan cools completely. Baking soda may also be used to suffocate the fire. Never put water on a grease fire. Water causes the grease to splatter and the fire to spread. Also, never attempt to take a grease fire outdoors. It will be too hot to carry and you will drop it, causing a major house fire.

Heating Equipment
Heating equipment plays a major role in the home fires during the winter months, and is the second-leading cause of home fires every year.

• When buying any heating equipment or heaters, look for devices with automatic shutoff features.

• Be sure any gas-fueled heating device is installed with proper attention to ventilation, and never put un-invented gas space heaters in bedrooms or bathrooms. Liquefied petroleum (LP) gas, heaters with self-contained fuel supplies are prohibited for home use by NFPA codes.

• Never leave space heaters on when you leave the room.

• Space heaters should be kept at least three feet away from anything that can burn.

• Don't use extension cords with space heaters. The high amount of current they require could melt the cord and start a fire.

• When lighting a gas space heater, strike your match first, then turn on the gas.

• Never use a gas range as a substitute for a furnace or space heater.

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Electrical Distribution Equipment
Electrical distribution equipment like wiring, outlets, switches, circuit breakers, and other electrical devices are the third leading cause of home fires and the second leading cause of fire deaths.

• Identify any loose or frayed cords on all electrical devices and replace or repair immediately.

• If outlets or switches feel warm, shut off the circuit and have them checked by an electrician.

• Try to avoid extension cords. If you feel an extension cord is necessary, make sure that it is not frayed or worn. Do not run it under carpet or around doorways.

• Never overload a socket. The use of "octopus" outlets or "power bar" outlet extensions that accommodate several plugs is strongly discouraged. Try to limit one high-wattage appliance into each individual outlet at a time.

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• If a circuit breaker trips or a fuse blows frequently, cut down on the number of appliances on that line. In many older homes, the capacity of the wiring system has not kept pace with today's modern appliances and can overload electrical systems. Some overload signals include dimming lights when an appliance goes on, fuses blowing frequently, or shrinking TV picture.

• Assure there's plenty of air space around home entertainment units such as the TV and stereo to avoid overheating.

Smoking
Smoking is the leading cause of home fire deaths in the United States.

• Never smoke in bed, always keep self extinguishing ashtray at the time of smoking inside the home. Always look under cushions and in trashcans for burning cigarettes before going to bed. Check carpeting where ashtrays have been used.

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More to think about
• Get rid of stored newspapers or other unnecessary material. Newspapers stored in a damp, warm place may ignite spontaneously.

• Install smoke detectors on every level of your home and outside the sleeping areas.

• Mount a fire extinguisher in the kitchen, garage, and workshop.

• Agree in advance on an escape plan. There should be at least two exits in every room.

Note: Half of all home fire deaths occur at night, so fire hazard checks and special attention to fire prevention should occur before going to bed.

Fire in Machinery Space
• Combustible liquid leaking through the faculty or damaged connection.
• Oil soaked insulation.
• Hot surface, e.g., exhaust pipes, engine parts overheating in close proximity of oil lines.
• Defect in lagging.
• Hot work, e.g., welding, cutting by oxy-acetylene torch,
• Auto ignition, e.g., oil dripping on to a hot surface.

Smoking:
• Fires are often caused by careless disposal of burning cigarette ends and matches. Ashtray should be provided and used only at authorized area. Ensure matched are extinguished and cigarette ands stubbed out.
• Warning notice should be displayed like ”No Smoking”.
• It is dangerous to smoke in bed.

Electrical and Outer Fittings:
• Authorized person only interfere with electrical fittings.
• Faulty fittings, wiring to be reported immediately to person in charge.
• All electrical fittings should be firmly secured.
• Flexible leads should be secured properly to avoid being chafed or cut.
• Make shift plugs, sockets, and fused should not be used.
• Circuits should not be overloaded since this causes overheating, failure of insulation, thus resulting short circuit which could start a fire.
• All portable electrical appliances, lights, etc. should be isolated from the main after use.
• All fixed electrical heater are to be fitted with suitable guards. Drying clothing on the heater should not be permitted.

Laundry and Wet Clothing:
• Clothing should not be placed over space heater.
• Clothing should be left to dry only in designated places.

Spontaneous Combustion:
• Heat may be generated spontaneously within such rubbish that may be sufficient to ignite flammable mixtures or may become hot enough to set the rubbish itself on fire. It should be properly stored and disposed as possible.

Galley or Kitchen
• Care should be taken, in particular, to avoid overheating or spilling of fat or oil and ensure that burners or heating plates are shutoff when cooking has finished.

• Means to smother fat or cooking oil fires, such as fire blanket, should be readily available.

• Filters in the galley exhaust to be cleaned regularly.

Industrial Space
The seriousness of fire in machinery spaces cannot be overstressed. All personnel should be fully aware of the precautions necessary for its prevention. This includes clean conditions, prevention of oil leakage, and removal of combustible materials.

Suitable metal containers should be provided for the storage of cotton waste, cleaning rags, etc. It should be emptied at frequent interval safely.

Wood, paints, sprits, oil, etc should not be kept in machinery space.

All electric wiring should be well maintained and kept clean and dry. The rated load capacity of the wires and fuses should never be exceeded.

Examples
• Fire-resistance rated walls.

Firewall (construction) (Firewalls not only have a rating, they are also designed to subdivide buildings such that if collapse occurs on one side, this will not affect the other side. They can also be used to eliminate the need for sprinklers, as a trade-off.

• Fire-resistance rated floors.

• Occupancy separations (barriers designated as occupancy separations are intended to segregate parts of buildings, where different uses are on each side; for instance, apartments on one side and stores on the other side of the occupancy separation).

• Closures (fire dampers, fire-resistance rated windows and fire doors. Sometimes fire stops are treated in building codes identically to closures. Canada derates closures, where, for instance, a two hour closure is acceptable for use in a three hour fire separation, so long as the fire separation is not an occupancy separation or firewall. The lowered rating is then referred to as a fire protection rating, both for fire stops, unless they contain plastic pipes and regular closures).

• Grease ducts (these refer to ducts that lead from commercial cooking equipment such as ranges, deep fryers and double decker, and conveyor equipped pizza ovens to grease duct fans.

• Cable coating (application of fire-retardants, which are either endothermic or in tumescent, to reduce flame spread and smoke development of combustible cable-jacketing).

• Spray fireproofing (application of in tumescent or endothermic paints, or fibrous or cementations plasters to keep substrates such as structural steel, electrical or mechanical services, valves, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vessels, vessel skirts, bulkheads or decks below either 140°C for electrical items or 500°C for structural steel elements to maintain operability of the item to be protected).

Fireproofing cladding (boards used for the same purpose and in the same applications as spray fireproofing). Materials for such cladding include perlite, vermiculite, calcium silicate, gypsum, in tumescent epoxy, duracell (cellulose fiber, re-enforced concrete, and punched sheet-metal bonded composite panels), MicroTherm.

Enclosures (boxes or wraps made of fireproofing materials, including fire-resistive wraps and tapes to protect specialty valves and other items deemed to require protection against fire and heat - an analogy for this would be a safe).


Immediate Action




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Make sure that you know:
• How to raise the alarm in the event of fire.
• Your nearest fire exit.
• Where your designated assembly point is situated.

Never take risks - if in doubt get out • Raise the alarm.
• Advise someone in authority of the location of the fire.
• Call the fire brigade.
• Where appropriate, switch of all equipment and machinery.
• Close all the windows and doors when vacating the room.
• Proceed to the nearest/safest fire exit following the fire safety signs.
• If the fire is small and you have received training and feel confident to do so, you may tackle the fire with the appropriate fire extinguisher - always remember to leave an escape route to the rear.

On hearing the fire alarm:
• Leave by the nearest/safest fire exit, escorting visitors, employee etc.
• Do not use the lifts.
• Do not stop to collect personal belongings.
• Do not re-enter the building until you have been told that it is safe to do so.

Responsible person’s additional duties:
• Ensure that the room/area is fully evacuated.
• Ensure that any windows and doors are shut.
• Report to the appropriate person at the designated assembly point.

Dealing with Smoke
Smoke is a combination of lethal gases, vapors, and particles of partially burnt materials. Most fires release smoke and all smoke is dangerous - more than half of fire related deaths are as a result of smoke inhalation.

If you see smoke coming from behind a closed door, never open it - there is a possibility of a violent explosion as a result of a sudden in rush of air. Remember that without a supply of air (oxygen) the fire will suffocate.

If you become trapped by smoke, you should:
• Lie on the floor.
• Breathe through your nose.
• Crawl to safety.
• Raise the alarm when it is safe to do so.



Fire Detection


Introduction


The use of fire detectors is increasing, particularly with the tendency to reduce manning and unmanned machinery space, office premises, industries, homes. A fire, if detected quickly, can be fought and brought under control with a minimum of damage. The main function of a fire detector is therefore to detect a fire as quickly as possible; it must also be reliable and require the minimum of attention. An important requirement is that it is not set off by any of the normal occurrences in the protected space, i.e., it must be appropriately sensitive to its protected space, i.e., it must be appropriately sensitive to its surroundings. Three phenomena associated with fire are used to provide alarms.

These Alarms are:-
1. Smoke detector
2. Flame detector
3. Heat Detector



General Requirement


• Any required fixed fire detection and fire alarm system with manually operated call points shall be capable of immediate operation at all times.

• Power supplies and circuits necessary for the operation of the system shall be monitored for loss of power or fault.

• Occurrence of a fault condition shall initiate a visual and a fault signal at the control panel which shall be distinct from the fire signal.

• There shall be not less than two sources of power supply for the electrical equipment. One of which shall be an emergency source. The supply shall be provided by separate feeders reserved solely for that purpose and such feeders shall run to an automatic change over switch.

• Detectors and manually operated call point shall be grouped into sections. The detector or manually operated call point shall initiate a visual and audible fire signal at the control panel and indicating units. If the signals have not received attention within two minutes an audible alarm shall be automatically sounded through out the building and service space.

• Clear information shall be displayed on or adjacent to each indicating unit about the spaces covered and the location of the section.

• Detectors shall be operated by heat, smoke, or other products of combustion, flame, or any combination of these factors. Flame detectors shall only be used in addition to smoke or heat detectors.

• Suitable instructions and component spares for testing and maintenance shall be provided.

• The function of the detection system shall be periodically tested to be satisfactory to the administration.

• The fire detection system shall not be used for any other purpose, except that closing of fire doors and similar functions permitted at the control panel.

The most efficient system imaginable could not hope to discover evey fire in a building the instant it breaks out. Therefore it is necessary to have a system, which automatically gives warning of the outbreak or potential for fire and explosion.


Automatic Fire Alarm




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A fire alarm system is an active fire protection system that controls all the fire alarm components in a building. Fire alarm systems are subject to stringent bounding.

The design of fire alarm systems is required to be performed by competent engineers with experience in fire protection, who are licensed within the geographical area of practice. Extensions of existing systems should be done using the original specification for the system and more than likely will be proprietary to match the existing equipment.

A fire alarm system should include, but not be limited to, alarm initiating devices, alarm notification appliances, control units, fire safety control devices, annunciators, power supplies, and wiring.

The A/E should provide a design in compliance with the fire codes unless a variation is approved in writing by the concerned authority. It is recommended that the approval comes from those knowledgeable in fire alarm design. The design, system layout, document submittal preparation, and supervision of installation and testing should be provided by a certified technician a registered fire protection engineer. The certified technician shall be on site for the supervision and testing of the system. Factory engineers from the equipment manufacturer, thoroughly familiar and knowledgeable with all equipment utilized, should provide additional technical support at the site as required by the contracting officer or his authorized representative. Installers should have experience in installing fire alarm systems.

A (DACT) digital alarm communicator transmitter should be connected to a pair of dedicated telephone lines to transmit an alarm signal only to a central station that is responsible for dispatching the fire department. The connection to the fire department is usually via a central station monitoring company which may be contracted on a monthly basis by the facility. If a connection to the fire department is not already present, the facility should determine if there are two telephone lines available for this connection.

The main fire alarm control unit should automatically transmit alarm signals to a listed central station using a digital alarm communicator transmitter.

The boundaries of the fire alarm system per building should be identified. The following questions must be answered for the contract. Every hospital should have many of the items identified below, some multiple times. Providing a list is very helpful for all readers of the specification including staff and contractors:

1. What buildings are involved in the project; list the specific buildings?
2. What interface is there with door magnets?
3. What interface is there with the elevator (shut down and recall; speakers in cars)?
4. What interface is there with HVAC systems for fan shut down?
5. What interface is there with kitchen hood suppression systems?
6. What interface is there with fire sprinkler systems?
7. What interface is there with dry pipe sprinkler systems?
8. What interface is there with precaution/deluge systems?
9. What interface is there with a fire pump?
10. What interface is there with temperature switches for storage tanks and dry pipe valve rooms?
11. What interface is there with door locking systems?
12. What interface is there with electric eyes (they could open doors upon detection of smoke)?
13. What interface is there with fire department?
14. What interface is there with the pagers or hand radio system?
15. What interface is there with the emergency generators?
16. Where is the fire command station?
17. Are two-way fire phones to be provided, where?

When fire alarm systems malfunction, they will often produce nuisance alarms.

Devices
Fire alarm systems have devices connected to them to detect the fire/smoke or to alert the occupants of an emergency.

Manual pull stations/manual call points - devices to allow people to manual activate the fire alarm. Usually located near exits.

Smoke detectors - spot type: photoelectric and ionization; line type: projected beam smoke detector; air-sampling type: cloud chamber.

• Water flow switches - detect when water is flowing through the fire sprinkler system
• Rate-of-rise and thermostat (heat) detectors - detect heat changes.
• Valve position switch - indicates that a fire sprinkler system valve that is required to be open, is now closed (off-normal).
• Carbon monoxide detectors - detects poisonous carbon monoxide gas.
Horns/strobes - visual and audible devices to alert people of system activation.
• Magnetic door holder - doors are allowed to close when the fire alarm is activated.

A fire alarm notification appliance is an active fire protection item. It is an electromechanical or electronic bell, klaxon, chime, horn, speaker, strobe light, or other device that warns people in a building of a possible fire or other condition requiring evacuation. Some horns can produce several different kinds of sounds, which was designed to be a distinct pattern used only for evacuation purposes. Other sound patterns include March time (0.25 second pulse, 0.25 second pause, repeat), a continuous tone, hi-lo (0.25 seconds alternating between two tones of differing frequency), siren (up-and-down sweep in frequency), slow-whoop (slow rising sweep upwards in frequency), and an electronic bell sound. Fire alarms are often very loud, sounding at between 90 and 100 decibels. Firefighters have been known to have hearing problems after exposure to alarms over many years. Typically, when a fire alarm is sounded, emergency responders are summoned, the building is evacuated, people gather at predetermined assembly points, and a roll call is held.

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Fire Detection Equipment


Here is the list of fire detecting equipment:
• Smoke Detectors
• Heat Detectors
• Rate-of-change of temperature detector
• Bursting temperature of sprinkle bulb in a sprinkle system.
• Cleaning and checking of contacts and other components and other components in the control box and ensuring that the connection to the fire alarm system operates correctly.


Smoke Detector


A smoke detector or smoke alarm is an active fire protection device, subject to stringent bounding, that detects airborne smoke, and issues an audible alarm, thereby alerting nearby people to the danger of fire. Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection or by ionization, but some of them use both detection methods to increase sensitivity to smoke. Smoke detectors may operate alone, be interconnected to cause all detectors in the premises to sound an alarm if one is triggered, or be integrated into a fire alarm or security system. Smoke detectors with flashing lights are available for the deaf or hearing impaired. A smoke detector cannot detect carbon monoxide to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning unless it has an integrated carbon monoxide detector.

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Optical detector Optical Smoke Detector
1: Optical chamber
2: Cover
3: Casemoulding
4: Photodiode (detector)
5: Infra-red LED

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An optical detector is a light sensor. When used as a smoke detector it includes a light source (infrared LED), a lens to collimate the light into a beam like a laser, and a photodiode or other photoelectric sensor at right-angles to the beam as a light detector. In the absence of smoke, the light passes in front of the detector in a straight line. When smoke enters the optical chamber into the path of the light beam, some light is scattered by the smoke particles, and some of the scattered light is detected by the sensor. An increased input of light into the sensor sets off the alarm.

Another type of optical detector works by using a straight line infrared beam from the sender to the receiver. When smoke enters the beam, some light is scattered which results in less light detected by the receiver. A decreased input of light into the receiver sets off the alarm.
Optical smoke detectors are quick in detecting slow burning, smoky fires.

Ionization detector
This type of detector is cheaper than the optical detector; however it is sometimes rejected for environmental reasons. It can detect particles of smoke that are too small to be visible. It includes a tiny mass of radioactive americium-241, which is a source of alpha radiation. The radiation passes through an ionization chamber, which is an air-filled space between two electrodes and permits a small, constant current to flow between the electrodes. Any smoke that enters the chamber absorbs the alpha particles, which reduces the ionization and interrupts this flow of current, setting off the alarm. Hot air entering the chamber changes the rate of ionization and therefore, the electric current level, which triggers an alarm.

Reliability

Residential ceiling-mounted smoke detector

In the early 1990s Texas A&M University did a full scale scientific investigation into the effectiveness of optical and ionization smoke detectors in different types of fires. The study determined that in a smoldering fire, with its relatively low number of large smoke particles, optical detectors fail 4.06% of the time, while ionization detectors fail 55.8%. For flame ignition fires, which have a large number of small, energetic smoke particles, photoelectric smoke detectors had a 3.99% probability of failure while ionization smoke detector failed 19.8%.

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Batteries
Most residential smoke detectors run on 9 volt alkaline batteries. If these batteries run out, the smoke detector will become inactive. Smoke detectors are required to signal a low battery condition, but it is common for houses to have smoke detectors with dead batteries. As a result, public information campaigns ought to be created to remind people to change their smoke detector batteries regularly. In regions using daylight saving time, these campaigns usually suggest that people change their batteries when they change their clocks.

Some detectors are also being sold with a lithium battery that can run for about 7 to 10 years, though this might actually make it less likely for people to change batteries since their replacement is needed so infrequently. By that time, the whole detector should be replaced. Though relatively expensive, user-replaceable 9 volt lithium batteries (in the same configuration as the common alkaline ones) are also available. They should only be used in a fairly new detector.

Smoke detectors with missing batteries are also a concern. As a result, many detectors sold today are designed to provide a visual indication of a missing battery. One popular brand of smoke detector will not allow the user to close the battery door until a battery has been placed in the alarm, making a missing battery situation immediately obvious. Some local governments do not permit the installation of smoke detectors with removable batteries.

In new construction, most building codes today require smoke detectors that are wired to the main electricity flow of buildings. Many of these units also include a battery backup to ensure operation during a power outage.

Rechargeable batteries should never be used in smoke detectors, since common NiMH and NiCd rechargeable batteries have a short life in between charges - in other words, they self-discharge relatively quickly. This is true even though they may provide much more power than alkaline batteries if used soon after charging (such as in a Walkman stereo). A quality alkaline battery should be installed and replaced every six months or so. The used battery will still probably have the majority of its charge and can be reused in less critical applications such as a backup for a digital alarm clock.

Testing
Smoke detectors are required to be equipped with a "test" button. Alternatively, artificial smoke can be purchased, which has the advantage of also testing the detector itself. Many people simply wave a lit match underneath the detector to test it; however this is dangerous as it can set the smoke alarm and the rest of the house on fire. A better way is to blow out a match and wave the smoking match under the detector.

It is recommended that smoke detectors batteries should be replaced once a year and the smoke detector should be replaced every ten years.

Smoke detector sensitivity comparisons
Obscuration is a unit of measurement that has become the standard definition of smoke detector sensitivity. Obscuration is the effect that smoke has on reducing visibility. Higher concentrations of smoke result in higher obscuration levels, lowering visibility.

Typical smoke detector obscuration ratings
Type of Detector Obscuration Level
Ionization 3%/m - 11%/m
Photoelectric 6%/m - 15%/m
Beam 3%/m
Aspirating 0.005%/m - 20%/m



Infra Red Flame Detector


Flame Detectors use optical sensors working at specific spectral ranges (usually narrow band) to record the incoming radiation at the selected wavelengths. 30 - 40% of the energy radiated from a fire is electromagnetic radiation that can be read at various spectral ranges (such as UV, VIS, and IR). The signals are then analyzed using a predetermined technique (flickering frequency, threshold energy signal comparison, mathematical correlation between several signals, correlation to memorized spectral analysis, etc.).

FireFighting18 Flame detectors are available in a number of sensor types. The most common sensor types include UV detectors, IR detectors, UV/IR detectors, IR/IR detectors, and IR3 (triple IR) detectors, and triple IR spectral band detectors.
UV only flame detectors (ultraviolet spectral band detection) work with wavelengths shorter than 300 nm (solar blind spectral band). They detect flames at high speed (3-4 milliseconds) due to the UV high-energy radiation emitted by fires and explosions at the instant of their ignition. These devices are quite accurate, although they are subject to interference (false alarms) from random UV sources such as lightning, arc welding, radiation, and solar radiation.

IR only detectors work within the infrared spectral band. The mass of hot gases emits a specific spectral pattern in the infrared spectral region. They are subject to interference (false alarms) by any other “hot” surface in the area.

UV and IR spectral band detectors compare the threshold signal in two spectral ranges and their ratio to each other to confirm the reliability of the fire signal. This style minimizes false alarms. Dual IR (IR/IR) band spectral band flame detectors function similarly.

IR3 triple IR spectral band detectors compare three specific wavelength bands within the IR spectral region. Mathematical techniques are used to correlate the three bands to discriminate between fire and false alarm.

Flame detectors are available with a number of features to help them better perform their tasks and to better survive flame laden or explosive environments. These features include adjustable time delays and automatic self tests explosion-proof enclosures, and integral air conditioning systems.


Heat Detector


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A heat detector is a device that detects heat and can be either electrical or mechanical in operation. The most common types are the thermocouple and the electro pneumatic, both respond to changes in ambient temperature. Typically, if the ambient temperature rises above a predetermined threshold, then an alarm signal is triggered.

Heat detectors can also be further broken down into two main classifications, "rate-of-rise" and "fixed" or "rate compensated".

Rate-of-rise heat detectors

Rate-of-rise (ROR) heat detectors react to the sudden change or rise in ambient temperature from a normal baseline condition. Any sudden temperature increase that matches the predetermined alarm criteria will cause an alarm. This type of heat detector can react to a lower threshold condition than would be possible if the threshold were fixed. A typical alarm may sound when the rate of temperature rise exceeds 12° to 15°F per minute.

Fixed temperature heat detectors
Fixed threshold or rate compensated heat detectors react to a preset threshold and will not activate until the preset threshold is crossed, regardless of the rate of temperature increase. If there is too much thermal lag in the design, the alarm threshold can be exceeded before an alarm condition is indicated.

Heat Detector General View and Construction

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Heat detector selection
Each type of heat detector has its advantages, and one cannot say that one type of heat detector should always be used instead of another. If you were to place a rate-of-rise (ROR) heat detector above a large, closed oven, then every time the door is opened a nuisance alarm could be generated due to the sudden heat transient. In this circumstance the fixed threshold detector would probably be best. If a room is protected with a fixed heat detector filled with highly combustible materials, then a fast flaming fire could exceed the alarm threshold due to thermal lag. In this case the rate-of-rise heat detector may be preferred.

Heat detectors are commonly marked "Not a life safety device". Heat detectors are not meant to replace smoke detectors in life safety applications like in bedrooms. While primarily for property protection, a heat detector will nonetheless notify of a fire in a utility area (i.e., laundry room or attic) faster than just relying on a smoke detector that might be on the other end of the house. This will allow extra time to evacuate the building or put out the fire if possible.



Fire Fighting Equipment


Fire Fighting Extinguishers


A fire extinguisher is a fire protection device used against of fires, often in emergency situations. Fire extinguishers consist of pressurized containers of chemicals that, when discharged, can put out fires. It is important for users to familiarize themselves with the use of fire extinguishers in their vicinity, as improper or untimely use, contrary to bounding, may be counterproductive.

A heat detector is a device that detects heat and can be either electrical or mechanical in operation. The most common types are the thermocouple and the electro pneumatic, both respond to changes in ambient temperature. Typically, if the ambient temperature rises above a predetermined threshold, then an alarm signal is triggered.

History of Fire Extinguishers;
The first fire extinguisher was presented in the United Kingdom by Captain George William Manby in 1816, consisting of a copper vessel of 3 gallons (13.6 liters) of pearl ash (potassium carbonate) solution under compressed air pressure.

The late 19th century saw the invention of the Soda-Acid extinguisher where a cylinder contained 1 or 2 gallons of water that had sodium bicarbonate mixed in it. Suspended in the cylinder was a vial containing concentrated sulfuric acid. The vial of acid was broken by one of two means depending on the type of extinguisher. One means involved the use of a plunger that broke the acid vial, while the second involved the release of a lead bung that held the vial closed. Once the acid was mixed with the bicarbonate solution, carbon dioxide gas would be expelled and this would in turn pressurize the water. The pressurized water was forced from the canister through a nozzle or short length of hose.

Around 1912 Pyrene pioneered the carbon tetrachloride or CTC extinguisher, where the liquid was expelled from a brass or chrome container by hand pump, usually of 1 imperial quart (1.1 L) or 1 imperial pint (0.6 L) capacity but also made in up to 2 imperial gallon (9 L) size, onto a fire. The CTC vaporized and extinguished the flames by chemical reaction. This extinguisher was suitable for liquid and electrical fires and was popular in motor vehicles for the next 60 years. The vapors and combustion by-products were highly toxic and deaths did occur from using these extinguishers in confined spaces.

Fire Fighting Extinguishers

Smoke alarms and escape plans are two of the most important components of our overall fire safety plan for our home or business. A third component of our plan may include fire suppression equipment such as a fire extinguisher.

We are all familiar with what a fire extinguisher looks like as we can see them almost everyday in our place of work, schools and in shopping areas.

The question is, do we know what to do in the event of fire and if you are using the correct type of fire extinguisher for the type of fire you encounter? Do you know how to safely and effectively use a fire extinguisher?

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First, we must understand that fire extinguishers are tools. A fire extinguisher is no substitute for a trained, properly equipped fire fighter. Fire extinguishers are small tools for a small fire. If you feel your safety is in danger - do not attempt to use a fire extinguisher. Instead, evacuate the area closing doors behind you to stop the spread of smoke, toxic gases, heat and fire.

Fire Extinguisher Ratings
Fires extinguishers are rated by the type or class and size of fire they are capable of extinguishing. Newer extinguishers use a picture or symbol of the type or class of fire they can by used to fight.

Class A Extinguishers will put out fires in ordinary combustibles, such as wood and paper. The numerical rating for this class of fire extinguisher refers to the amount of water the fire extinguisher holds and the amount of fire it will extinguish.

The symbol you may see to designate the extinguisher may be used on a class A fire is a green triangle with the letter A in the middle.

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Class B Extinguishers should be used on fires involving flammable liquids, such as grease, gasoline, oil, etc. The numerical rating for this class of fire extinguisher states the approximate number of square feet of a flammable liquid fire that a non-expert person can expect to extinguish.

The symbol you may see to designate the extinguisher may be used on a class B fire is a red square with the letter B in the middle.

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Class C Extinguishers are suitable for use on electrically energized fires. This class of fire extinguishers does not have a numerical rating. The presence of the letter “C” indicates that the extinguishing agent is non-conductive.

The symbol you may see to designate the extinguisher may be used on a class C fire is a blue circle with the letter C in the middle.

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Class D Extinguishers are suitable for use on combustible metal fires. Because combustible metals are found generally in specialized processing areas, the class D rating is found only on extinguishers designed for combustible metal fires and rarely will a household fire involve these types of materials.

There is no picture designator for class D extinguishers. These extinguishers generally have no rating nor are they given a multipurpose rating for use on other types of fires.

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Multi Class Extinguishers are extinguishers available today can be used on different types of fires and will be labeled with more than one designator, e.g. A-B, B-C, or A-B-C. Make sure that if you have a multipurpose extinguisher it is properly labeled.

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Old & New Labeling
This is the old style of labeling indicating suitability for use on Class A, B, and C fires.

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This is the new labeling style with a diagonal red line drawn through the picture to indicate what type of fire this extinguisher is not suitable for. In this example, the fire extinguisher could be used on ordinary combustibles and flammable liquids fires, but not for electrical equipment fires.

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Different Type of Portable Extinguishers


Dry chemical or powder extinguishers are usually rated for multiple purpose use. They contain an extinguishing agent and use a compressed, nonflammable gas as a propellant.

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Halon extinguishers contain a gas that interrupts the chemical reaction that takes place when fuels burn. These types of extinguishers are often used to protect valuable electrical equipment since them leave no residue to clean up. Halon extinguishers have a limited range, usually 4 to 6 feet. The initial application of Halon should be made at the base of the fire, even after the flames have been extinguished.

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Water: These extinguishers contain water and compressed gas and should only be used on class A (ordinary combustibles) fires.

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Carbon Dioxide (CO2) extinguishers are most effective on class B and C (liquids and electrical) fires. Since the gas disperses quickly, these extinguishers are only effective from 3 to 8 feet. The carbon dioxide is stored as a compressed liquid in the extinguisher; as it expands, it cools the surrounding air. The cooling will often cause ice to form around the “horn” where the gas is expelled from the extinguisher. Since the fire could reignite, continue to apply the agent even after the fire appears to be out.

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General Requirement of Fixed Fire Fighting System and how to use it.


How to Use a Fire Extinguisher

Even though extinguishers come in a number of shapes and sizes, they all operate in a similar manner. Here's an easy acronym for fire extinguisher use:

A typical fire extinguisher contains 10 seconds of extinguishing power. This could be less if it has already been partially discharged. Always read the instructions that come with the fire extinguisher beforehand and become familiarized with its parts. It is highly recommended by fire prevention experts that you get hands-on training before operating a fire extinguisher. Most local fire departments offer this service.

Once the fire is out, don't walk away! Watch the area for a few minutes in case it reignites. Recharge the extinguisher immediately after use.

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Fire needs fuel, oxygen and heat in order to burn. In simple terms, fire extinguishers remove one of these elements by applying an agent that either cools the burning fuel, or removes or displaces the surrounding oxygen.

Fire extinguishers are filled with water or a smothering material, such as CO2. By pulling out the safety pin and depressing the lever at the top of the cylinder (the body of the extinguisher), this material is released by high amounts of pressure.

P A S S - Pull, Aim, Squeeze, and Sweep

Pull the pin at the top of the extinguisher that keeps the handle from being accidentally pressed.

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Aim the nozzle toward the base of the fire.

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Stand approximately 8 feet away from the fire and squeeze the handle to discharge the extinguisher. If you release the handle, the discharge will stop.

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Sweep the nozzle back and forth at the base of the fire. After the fire appears to be out, watch it carefully since it may reignite!

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Automatic Water Sprinkle System


A sprinkler system consists of a series of water pipes, either under pressure or connected to a quick-acting pump, attached to which at pre-determined intervals are heads which open automatically when subjected to the heat to fire. Sprinklers are fixed devices for distributing water upon a fire in sufficient quantity either to extinguish it completely or to prevent its spread in the event that original fire is out of range of or is of a type that cannot be completely extinguished by water discharged from sprinklers. Automatic sprinkler give warning of the existence of fire and at the same time applies water to the burning area. The system incorporate two type of sprinkler heads, each one serving different application;

• Sprinkler head with quartzoid bulb which contain special fluid.
• Sprinkler head without bulb.

Sprinkler heads with bulb are used in passenger vessels to protect accommodation and services spaces, where it serves the purpose of detection alarm and extinction. This system has a number of sprinkler heads. The heads are supplied with water under constant pressure and are arranged such a way that each space requiring protection is adequately covered. Each head has a glass or quartzoid bulb, which retains a diaphragm seal in the outlet of the water pope. The bulb is partly filled with a special liquid, which expand and full the bulb and eventually burst when there is a rise in temperature in the compartment. The constant water pressure being maintaining in the pipe forces the diaphragm out and water flows from the sprinkler.

The constant pressure is maintained in the pipeline by maintaining a pressure of 3.5 to 8.3 bars in the reservoir tank. When the pressure drops in the line in the event of a fire, the pump starts automatically supplying seawater in the line. In order to prevent corrosion and wear and tear of moving parts, the system is charged with fresh water. Hence after seawater is pumped through the system, the system has to be thoroughly flushed and recharged.

Sprinkler heads without bulbs are used in the machinery spaces of certain cargo ships and passenger ships and are fitted with fixed pressure spraying system. The system provides water at stipulated rates through numerous sprinkler or nozzle outlets, but the fire has to be detected at other areas over which oil may have spread. Each of these areas is controlled by a valve in any section is opened and the line pressure droops the pump cuts in automatically. An air vessel in the system prevents the pump cutting in due to minor drop in pressure.

The water application rates are similar as for sprinkler systems-coverage being entire and at 5 l m?2 . per minute reduced to 3.5 l m?2 per minute.

Action in case of fire (on hearing the sprinkler alarm)
• Sound the general alarm to summon the crew.
• Check the location of fire, which will be shown on the Bridge of fire control Station.
• One man to stand by at the main valve of the installation. Ascertain the extent of fire.
• Lay out a line of hose and bring portable extinguisher to the scene.
• When it is certain that the fire is extinguished, shut off the main stop valve and the alarm connection plug cock. Open the drain and test valves fully.
• Examine the fire area and ensure there is no fire burning behind paneling, under bunks etc.



Action after Fire Typical Fixed Fire Fighting Systems


Immediate action must be taken to put the system back into working order after the fire.

• Any sprinkler heads, which have been actuated by the fire, must be replaced.

• Close the drain and test valves and open the main stop valve slightly, allowing Water to full the pipes slowly. When the two pressure gauges show same reading, valve can be fully opened and locked in that position.

• All salt water must be completely drained the system.

• The pressure tank must now be filled and the whole installation charged with Fresh water. The tank should be brought to correct level and air pressure.

Typical Fixed Fire Fighting

• Carbon Dioxide (CO2) systems.
• Halogenated hydrocarbons.
• Sprinklers (wet and dry risers).
• Foam (low expansion).
• Foam (high expansion).
• Fire Mains, Hydrants.
• International Shore Connection.
• Emergency Generators, Emergency Fire Pump.
• Pressure Water spray in special category spaces.
• Chemical powder applicants.



Smothering Effect Systems


Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Systems

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a colorless. Odorless gas and is one half times heavier than air, CO2 gas is not toxic, but if inhaled in heavy concentration, it will suffocate. The critical temperature of CO2 is 31.350C. If the liquid is heated above this temperature, it will pass into gaseous stage without any change in volume. It is therefore important that CO2 is maintained in liquid from prior to use as an extinguishing agent. At normal temperature and pressure the expansion ratio of CO2 from liquid to gas form is 450; and one kilogram of liquid will produce 0.56 m3 of gas.

A typical fixed CO2 system employs a battery of solid-drawn steel cylinders to contain liquefied in 30 or 45 kg sizes, at pressure ranging between 50 and 60 kg cm-2 at 60 0F. Pipes of at least 20 mm solid-drawn galvanized steel lead the gas from the cylinders to the engine room or cargo holds, where they terminate in gas discharge nozzles.

CO2 extinguishes fire by reducing the oxygen content in the atmosphere to a point where it will not support combustion. Reducing oxygen content form normal 21% in air to 15% will extinguish most of the fires, for some material it must be reduced even lower.;

Fires which can be extinguished or controlled by CO2 total flooding method may be divided into categories, namely;
• Surface fires involving flammable liquids, gases and solids.
• Deep seated fires involving solids subjects to smoldering. When CO2 Alarm Sounds:
• Evacuate the Engine Room and call the roll to account for all personnel.
• Close all doors, ventilators, skylights, funnel flaps etc.
• Shut down oil Fuel supplies at the emergency control points.
• Operate the CO2 system.
• Start the emergency Fire Pump and if necessary spray water on to heated areas of the casing.
• Keep the space tightly closed and leave for a minimum of one, but preferably. Two or three hours before carrying out inspections. Entry should be made at the lowest possible level by engineers wearing breathing apparatus. They should take with them a charged line of hose fitted with a spray nozzle. Any smoldering fire should be extinguished. The door through which entry was made should be left open sufficient only to admit the hose line.
• When it is certain that the fire is out, open all the ventilation to order to remove the smoke and CO2 gas. Ensure that there is no gas left in the space before men enter without wearing breathing apparatus.

Form Smothering Systems

Foam installations rely on the interaction of two chemicals usually aluminum sulfate and a solution of sodium bicarbonate to which is added a stabilizer. Chemical has now been almost entirely superseded by mechanical foam. This consists of a single solution, which can be introduced into the water stream, aerated at the branch pipe, and thrown as stable foam on the area of the fire. The foam making compound is liquid and is easily stored in cans or drums.

a) LOW EXPANSION FOAM SYSTEMS
In the machinery space where a low expansion system is fitted, the system shall capable of discharging through fixed discharge outlets in note more than 5 minutes a quantity of foam sufficient to cover depth of 150 mm. The largest single area over which oil fuel is liable spread. In the case of Deck foam system for Tankers, the system shall be capable of supplying not less than 1250 liters per minute.

• The ship’s pumps giving about 5-bar pressure at the pump delivery.
• A pressurized water tank with a separate compound tank system, with CO2 cylinders supplying the motive power. The water supply for foam making must be connected to emergency fire pump.

Supplying the motive power. The water supply for foam making must be connected to emergency for pump.
In the self contained pressurized type, two tanks are used containing fresh water and foam making liquid respectively. The fresh water is ejected by release of CO2 or Nitrogen from storage bottles and in its passage across induction fitting, draws the required proportion of foam-making compound from the second tank. The mixture then flows along pipes to machinery and boiler spaces, passes through nozzles in special foam making fittings where it is agitated and entrains the air necessary for the formation of foam.

In the fire pump pressurized system the foam making liquid stored in the tank has a connection with large bore water main. When the water supply, which must have a connection to emergency fire pressurized, the foam making liquid is induced into the system by the reduction in pressure resulting from the water flowing through the venture. This mixture is carried along to a foam-making fitting and foam generated is distributed from open-ended pipes. With this system, it is possible to use a hand foam distributor by attaching a hose and a special foam-making nozzle into the main distribution line.

In the premix foam pressure type, the foam compound and water are mixed in solution and stored in a tank. The tank is pressurized by carbon dioxide cylinders and the solution passed to foam making spreaders in the machinery and boiler spaces.

A major problem associated with the use of low expansion foam as a fire fighting system in machinery spaced is that it is most effective only in the horizontal plane and is least effective on most dangerous fires involving burst fuel lines higher up in the space.

Another problem is that the system is difficult to test so that there is little guarantee that the installation will function when required.

b) High Expansion Form System
High expansion foam in machinery spaces shall be capable or rapidly discharging through fixed discharge outlets a quantity of foam sufficient to till the largest space to be protected at the rate of at least one meter in depth per minute. The quantity of foam making compound available shall be sufficient to produce a volume of foam equal to five times the volume of the largest space protected.

High expansion foam has an expansion ration of 1:100. A Special foam generator is required for producing high expansion foam. It consist generally a power driven fan, a net of gauze, an external shutter, a supply of high expansion foam compound and a means to spray the water or foam solution evenly over the net. The operation of the generator is Foam solution is uniformly sprayed over the near and air is blown through it. On opening the external shutter, foam of uniform size and having an expansion ratio of 1:1000 is produced and ducted away to protected space.

The foam is tough and persistent and is an excellent insulator and absorber of heat. On such foam reaching the fire, unit volume of water in the foam is turned into approximately 1700 volumes of steam, the resulting atmosphere now contains only about seven and half percent of oxygen by volume, far less than the percentage require sustaining burning. At the same high expansion foam is quite effective in some circumstances, but suffers from serious disadvantage:

• For long machinery space, generators with effective output required and this involve construction of large ducts.

• Owing to build of back pressure, if practice it is impossible to complete fills a given space so that fire can burn above foam level.

• Any one evolved in high expansion foam will experience great difficult in making their escape. Even person wearing breathing apparatus will find difficult to escape from a foam filled Machinery space of any great size.

• Once the space has been filled with foam, it will be difficult and time consuming to clean up the space.


Inhibitor Effect Systems


Halogenized Systems

Halogenated extinguisher agents are hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by atoms from the halogen series:

Fluorine, chlorine, bromide, or iodine. This substitution confirms nonflammability and flame extinguishing property to many of many of these resulting compounds.

The use of halogenated hydrocarbons as fire extinguishing media is only permitted in machinery space, pump room and in cargo space.

Fluorine, chlorine, and bromine are three elements commonly found in the fire extinguishing media. Substitution of hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon with these influences the relative properties in the following manner.

Fluorine: imparts stability to the compound, reduce toxicity; reduce boiling point and increases thermal stability.

Chlorine: imparts extinguishing effectiveness, increase boiling point and increase toxicity and reduce thermal stability.

Bromine: Same as chlorine; but to greater degree

Compounds containing combination of fluorine, chlorine, and bromine can possess varying degree of extinguishing effectiveness, chemical and thermal stability, toxicity, and volatility.

These agents are most suitable for electrical fire since they do not become electrically conductive in presence of water. Further, being either gases or liquids vaporizing rapidly in fire, they do not leave any corrosive or abrasive residue after use.

The extinguishing mechanism of the halogenised agents is a chain reaction, which interfere with the combustion process. They act by removing the active chemical species involved in the flame chain reactions. In total flooding systems, rapid and complete extinguishment is obtainable with low concentration of agent. On a weight of agent basis, halons are approximately two and half times more effective than CO2.

The main disadvantage of Halons is its relative toxicity. Inhalation of 4% to 5% of this gas is the maximum that can safely be inhaled for one minute.


Cooling Effect Systems


A sprinkler system consists of a series of water pipes, either under pressure or connected to a quick-acting pump, attached to which at predetermined intervals are heads which open automatically when subjected to the heat to fire. Sprinklers are fixed devices for distributing water upon a fire in sufficient quantity either to extinguish it completely or to prevent its spread in the event that original fire is out of range of or is of a type that cannot be completely extinguished by water discharged from sprinklers. Automatic sprinkler give warning of the existence of fire and at the same time applies water to the burning area. The system incorporate two type of sprinkler heads, each one serving different application;

• Sprinkler head with quartzoid bulb which contain special fluid.
• Sprinkler head without bulb.

Sprinkler heads with bulb are used in passenger vessels to protect accommodation and services spaces, where it serves the purpose of detection alarm and extinction. This system has a number of sprinkler heads. The heads are supplied with water under constant pressure and are arranged such a way that each space requiring protection is adequately covered. Each head has a glass or quartzoid bulb, which retains a diaphragm seal in the outlet of the water pope. The bulb is partly filled with a special liquid, which expand and full the bulb and eventually burst when there is a rise in temperature in the compartment. The constant water pressure being maintaining in the pipe forces the diaphragm out and water flows from the sprinkler.

The constant pressure is maintained in the pipeline by maintaining a pressure or 3.5 to 8.3 bars in the reservoir tank. When the pressure drops in the line in the event of a fire, the pump starts automatically supplying seawater in the line. In order to prevent corrosion and wear and tear of moving parts, the system is charged with fresh water. Hence after seawater is pumped through the system, the system has to be thoroughly flushed and recharged.

Sprinkler heads without bulbs are used in the machinery spaces of certain cargo ships and passenger ships and are fitted with fixed pressure spraying system. The system provides water at stipulated rates through numerous sprinkler or nozzle outlets, but the fire has to be detected by other areas over which oil may have spread. Each of these areas is controlled by a valve in any section is opened and the line pressure droops the pump cuts in automatically. An air vessel in the system prevents the pump cutting in due to minor drop in pressure.

The water application rates are similar as for sprinkler systems-coverage being entire and at 5 l m-2 per minute reduced to 3.5 liters m-2 per minute.

Action in case of fire (on hearing the sprinkler alarm)

• Sound the general alarm to summon the crew.
• Check the location of fire, which will be shown on the bridge of fire control station.
• One man to stand by at the main valve of the installation. Ascertain the extent of fire.
• Lay out a line of hose and bring portable extinguisher to the scene.
• When it is certain that the fire is extinguished, shut off the main stop valve and the alarm connection plug cock. Open the drain and test valves fully.
• Examine the fire area and ensure there is no fire burning behind paneling, under bunks etc.

Action after Fire

Immediate action must be taken to put the system back into working order after the fire.
• Any sprinkler heads, which have been actuated by the fire, must be replaced.
• Close the drain and test valves and open the main stop valve slightly, allowing water to full the pipes slowly. When the two pressure gauges show same reading, valve can be fully opened and locked in that position.
• All salt water must be completely drained the system.
• The pressure tank must now be filled and the whole installation charged with fresh water. The tank should be brought to correct level and air pressure.



Chemical Powder Applicants


Fixed fire fighting installations on tankers are not suitable for ships carrying Liquid Hydrocarbons gases such as LPG and LNK in bulk. Although LPG (e.g., propane and butane) may be carried in liquid state in tanks under pressure at ambient temperature, they are more usually carried refrigerated whilst LNG, e.g., Methane with a critical temperature, They are more usually carried refrigerated, its boiling point are ambient pressure being –162 0C. Any leakage of such liquids from joints, valves, etc. on deck vaporizes quickly. The speed of vaporization is affected by factors such as the area over which the liquid has spread, the depth of spill, ambient temperatures, etc. with the liquid temperature being so low, application of comparatively warm seawater for foam will hasten its change of state from liquid to gas with the risk of an explosion. On such ships, therefore it is better to provide a fixed dry powder system for use on deck to combat incipient gas fires.

The system consists essentially of powder or dry chemical in one more vessels capable of being pressurized form a bank of nitrogen cylinders. The dry powder vessel are connected o various control stations on deck. Each control station will have a hose and nozzle, a cylinder of nitrogen and appropriate controls.

Gross spillage of deeply refrigerated liquid is extremely dangerous. It can cause embitterment of the deck and contact with human body results in vicious cold burns. In case of spillage to the deck following positive action may be taken:

• Attempt to isolate the source of leakage.
• Wash the leaked liquid overboard as quickly as possible copious amount of sea water from the fire mains.
• Extinguish or secure all possible sources of ignition until the resulting gas could have dissipated.
A prepared plan is required to be made for each individual ship, taking into consideration all the relevant circumstances.



Miscellaneous Fire-Fighting Equioment


Fire Hydrant Hoses and Nozzles


A fire hydrant is a fire protection measure and a source of water provided in most urban, suburban and rural areas with municipal water service to enable firefighters to tap into the municipal water supply to assist in extinguishing a fire.
The concept of fire hydrants dates to the 1600s. This was a time when firefighters responding to a call would dig down to the water mains and hastily bore a hole to secure water to fight fires via bucket brigades or, later, via hand pumped fire engines. The holes were then plugged with stoppers, which over time came to be known as fire plugs. This is the source of the colloquial term fire plug still used for fire hydrants today. After the Great Fire of London in 1666, the city installed water mains with holes drilled at intervals, equipped with risers, placing the fire plugs at street level.

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It has been claimed that Bird sill Holly invented the fire hydrant, but his 1869 design was preceded by many other patents for fire hydrants, and a number of these earlier designs were produced and successfully marketed. Numerous wooden cased fire hydrant designs existed prior to the development of the familiar cast iron hydrant. Although the development of the first above ground hydrant in the USA traces back to Philadelphia in 1803, underground fire hydrants — common in parts of Europe and Asia — have existed since the 1700s.

Operation

A hose is attached to the fire hydrant, then the valve is opened to provide a powerful source of water, 50 lbf in-² (350 kPa) in some areas depending on various factors including the size and location of the attached water main. This hose can be further attached to a fire engine, which can then use a powerful pump to boost the water pressure and possibly split it into multiple streams. The hose may be connected with a threaded connection or a Storz connector. Care should be taken not to open or close a fire hydrant too quickly, as this can create a water hammer which can damage nearby pipes and equipment. The high water pressure inside the hose causes it to be very heavy, stiff, and unable to make a tight turn while pressurized. When a fire hydrant is unobstructed, this is not a problem, as there is enough room to adequately position the hose.

Most fire hydrant valves are not designed to throttle the water flow; they are designed to be operated full-on or full-off. Attempting to throttle the flow with the hydrant valve can cause damage to some hydrant designs. A hose with a closed nozzle valve, or fire truck connection, or closed gate valve is always attached to the hydrant prior to opening the hydrant's main valve.

In most jurisdictions it is illegal to park a car within a certain distance of a fire hydrant.

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Firehoses

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Indoor firehose A fire hose is a thick, high-pressure hose used to carry water or other fire retardant (such as foam) to a fire to extinguish it. Outdoors, it is attached either to a fire engine or a fire hydrant. Indoors, it can be permanently attached to a building's standpipe or plumbing system.

The usual working pressure of a fire hose can vary between 8 bar (0.8 MPa) - 20 bar (2.0 MPa), while its bursting pressure can be up to 63 bar (6.3Mpa). (This level of pressure emitted by the hose can actually break in a weaker brick wall.)

This high pressure also allows the fire hose to serve as an effective form of crowd control, including most notably by Bull Connor in the Deep South against civil rights protestors.

Hose coupling

The hose coupling is the metal piece on the end of a hose to connect it to extra hose or hose appliances. It is usually made of steel or brass. The hose coupling comes in several different styles.

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Fire Nozzle

Fire Nozzle is a tip which is used in the front of Fire hose to provide a sufficient working pressure.


Fireman’s Outfit or Fire Fighter Outfit


Fire proximity Suit or fire man’s outfit or fire fighter outfit (aka silvers or silver bunker suit) is a suit designed to protect a firefighter from high temperatures and fires. They are manufactured from vacuum deposited aluminized materials that reflect the high radiant loads produced by the fire.

To enable the fire fighter team to approach the seat of fire and to carry out rescue duties they should have adequate protection against the smoke and heat.

Fireman’s outfit includes:

• Breathing Apparatus.
• Water resisting protective clothing of material to protect the skin from heat radiating from the fire and from burns and scalding steam.
• Boots and gloves of rubber of other electrically non-conducting material.
• Rigid helmets.
• An electrically intrinsically safe hand lamp with minimum of 3 hrs duration.
• An axe with a short insulation handle.
• A strong fire proof life line.
• A belt for carrying the ancillary equipment.

The breathing apparatus should consist of either a self-contained apparatus of approved type of a smoke helmet or mask, supplied with air pump a length of flexible hose exceeding 36 meters sufficient to reach from the open deck to any part of the holds or machinery spaces. The self-contained apparatus should consist of a face mask attached by a flexible hose to one to two cylinders containing air and supported on frame and harness. The capacity of the apparatus should not be less than 1200 l to give a nominal functioning time 30 minutes.


Personnel Equipment


Personnel fire fighting equipments includes all the safety measures

There is five essential Personnel safety equipment
• Boiler suit
• Safety Shoes
• Safety Gloves
• Helmets
• Safety Goggles

Other safety equipments include:

• Air monitoring meter: electronic device for measuring the presence of one or more chemicals in air, such as oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide or volatile organic compounds; may have preset danger threshold alarms.

• Airpack: jargon for self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

• APW: Air-pressurized water fire extinguisher, partially filled with water and then pressurized with an air pump; popular in the US in the 2 1/2-gallon size, rated 2A.

• Extinguisher: Device containing fire suppressant, often pressurized to expel suppressant when triggered by operator or an automatic release mechanism. Important to properly select type of extinguisher appropriate to type of material burning (wood, grease, electrical, etc). May be portable or permanently installed for special suppression purposes, such as fires in aircraft engines, restaurant exhaust hoods, or computer rooms.

• Extrication gloves: Work gloves designed for vehicle extrication and other rescue applications, but not rated for firefighting. They resemble mechanics gloves but are made of tougher material, often Kevlar, and designed to protect against cuts from glass and metal.

• Fire axe

• Fire Hydrant

• Ground Ladder

• Hook

• Life Safety Line: A rope used where its failure could result in serious injury; a rope used for connecting a firefighter/rescuer to a fixed anchor point or to another person.

• Self Contained Breathing Apparatus, or air-pack, worn by firefighters to protect against breathing toxic fumes and smoke, or where the air has insufficient oxygen. Often incorrectly called "oxygen mask" by laypersons. Typically of open circuit style, with a supply of compressed air, where expired air is exhausted, rather than closed circuit where it is filtered, re-oxygenated from compressed oxygen, and inhaled again — which is used where an air supply is needed for an extended period (up to four hours).

• Shove knife: semi-rigid metallic blade of various shapes and sizes used for forcing spring latches during forcible entry.

• Ventilation saw: A high-powered saw with metal-cutting teeth or disc for quickly making large openings in roofing materials.


Breathing Apparatus


Self contained breathing apparatus

A self-contained breathing apparatus or SCBA is a device worn by rescue workers, firefighters, and others to provide breathable air in a hostile environment. When not used underwater, they are sometimes called industrial breathing sets. The term "self-contained" differentiates SCBA from other apparatus connected to a remote supply by a long hose. If designed for use under water, it is called SCUBA, or self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.

An SCBA typically has three main components: a high-pressure tank (e.g., 2200 psi to 4500 psi), a pressure regulator, and an inhalation connection (mouthpiece or face mask), connected together and mounted to a carrying frame.

There are two kinds of SCBA:
1. Open circuit
2. Closed circuit.

01) Open Circuit SCBA Set
Open-circuit industrial breathing sets are filled with filtered, compressed air, the same air we breathe normally. The compressed air passes through a regulator, is inhaled by the user, and then exhaled out of the system, quickly depleting the supply of air. Most modern SCBAs are open-circuit.

02) Closed Circuit SCBA Set

The closed-circuit type filters, supplements, and recirculates exhaled gas: see rebreather for more information. It is used when a longer-duration supply of breathing gas is needed, such as in mine rescue and in long tunnels, and going through passages too narrow for a big open-circuit air cylinder. Before open-circuit SCBA's were developed, most industrial breathing sets were rebreathers, such as the Siebe Gorman Proto and the Siebe Gorman Savox and the Siebe Gorman Salvus. Examples of modern rebreather SCBAs are the SEFA and a set made by Draeger.

For rebreathers used underwater, where they have the advantage of not releasing telltale bubbles, making it more difficult to detect divers involved in covert operations, see frogman.

Typical Operation:

A rescue/firefighter SCBA has a full-face mask, regulator, air cylinder, cylinder pressure gauge, and a harness with adjustable shoulder straps and waist belt, which lets it be worn on the back. Its cylinder usually holds 30 or 45 minutes worth of air, but this can be less or more, commonly as low as 15 minutes or as high as 60 minutes.

Air cylinders are made of aluminum, steel, or have a composite construction (usually fiberglass-wrapped aluminum.) The composite cylinders are the lightest in weight and are therefore preferred by fire departments (UK: fire brigades), but they also have the shortest lifespan and must be taken out of service after 15 years. Air cylinders must be hydrostatically tested every 3 years for composite cylinders, and every 5 years for metal cylinders. During extended operations, empty air cylinders can be quickly replaced with fresh ones and then refilled from larger tanks in a cascade system or from an air compressor brought to the scene.

Commonly an SCBA will be of the "positive pressure" type, which supplies a slight steady stream of air to stop toxic fumes or smoke from leaking into the mask. Not all SCBAs are positive pressure; others are of the "demand" type, which only supply air on demand (i.e., when the regulator senses the user inhaling). All fire departments and those working in toxic environments need to use the positive pressure SCBA for safety reasons.

As SCBA technology has evolved, different models have evolved for firefighting, versus those designed for where the set does not need to be heat resistant, such as in mining. In the USA, SCBAs used in firefighting must meet guidelines established by the National Fire Protection Association, NFPA Standard 1981. If an SCBA is labeled as "1981 NFPA compliant", it is designed for firefighting. The current version of the standard was published in 2002. Similarly, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has a certification program for SCBA that are intended to be used in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) environments. See NIOSH Approved SCBAs


Fire Blankets


A fire blanket is a safety device designed to extinguish small incipient (starting) fires.

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Common Uses

Fire blankets are found in a number of residential and commercial settings. They are commonly found in situations where extinguishing a fire with water would be difficult, such as grease, oil and electrical fires. They are also found where people's clothing may catch fire.

In the household, fire blankets are located in the kitchen to assist with grease fires on the stove. In commercial garages, fire blankets are located near oil storage or engine work to assist with oil and grease fires. In commercial settings where sparks are present (foundries, welding shops), fire blankets are available in case sparks ignite an employee's clothing. In some cases, fire blankets are found around electrical equipment such as computers or generators.

Construction

Fire blankets come in a range of sizes, from a small 3-foot x 3-foot (1 meter x 1 meter) square up to the size of a large bedding blanket. They are made from a fire resistant fabric such as fiberglass or aramid fibers (Nomex), or from a durable fabric such as wool treated with a fire retardant coating. From appearance alone, they seem like any thick wool blanket.

How Fire Blankets Work

In order for a fire to burn, all four elements of the fire tetrahedron must be present: heat, fuel, oxygen and a sustaining chemical chain reaction. A fire blanket either completely surrounds a burning object or is placed over a burning object and sealed closely to a solid surface around the fire. Either way, the blanket cuts off the supply of oxygen, smothering the fire.

Proper Use

Always read the instructions for your specific fire blanket before use. As with any fire, if possible, it is important to first alert others to the fire, evacuate anyone in the area and contact the fire department in case the fire cannot be extinguished. If available, a fire blanket and fire extinguisher can be used. Fire blankets can be used on Class A (Ordinary Combustibles), Class B (Oil, Grease, Gasoline), Class C (Electrical) and some Class D (burning metals) fires. Ensure that you have a safe exit - an escape route in case you are unable to extinguish the fire. The fire should not be between you and the exit. Open the fire blanket and hold it in front of you to shield your body (especially the face and hands) from the fire. Cover the burning material completely, ensuring there are no gaps for oxygen to reach the fire. Leave the blanket in place, allowing the material to cool for at least 30 minutes before lifting the blanket. If appropriate, shut of the gas or electrical supply if it is involved in the fire. Contact the fire department if you have not already done so.



Fire Fighting Methods


Fire Fighting Strategy


Inspect and review:

• The scene of fire as rapidly as possible.
• Assess the nature of fire by determining its intensity and extent.
• The type and abundance of fuel.
• The danger of entering the fire area.
• Most effective techniques for extinguishing the fire.
• Location and rescuing endangered person.
• Containing the fire and protecting adjacent areas.
• Ventilation of the fire area to allow for the escape of heat and toxic gases.
• Finally extinguishing the fire.
• If your clothing is on fire (and the floor is not), STOP, DROP and ROLL on the ground to extinguish the flames. If you are within a few feet of a safety shower or a fire blanket, you can use these instead, but do not try to make it "just down the hall" if you are on fire. If one of your coworkers catches fire and runs down the hallway in panic, tackle them and extinguish their clothing.



Fire Safety Regulation and Code In Accommodations & Office


Fire safety is a component of Building Safety. It concerns safety measures to prevent the effects of fires and is the result of proper use of fire protection measures.

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Some elements include:

• Having built a facility in accordance with the version of the local building code that was in effect at the time a building permit was applied for.

• Maintaining a facility and conducting oneself in accordance with the provisions of the fire code, from the moment that the building was occupied. This is based on thorough knowledge of the code by the owner and ensuring that the occupants and operators of the building are fully aware of the currently applicable regulations, including supplementary documents that may be applicable, which are referenced in the fire code, such as, as an example, NFPA13 or NFPA96. Examples of such lawful conduct include, but are not limited to, the following:

o Not exceeding the maximum occupancy listing for any part of the building (Making sure that an area isn't so full of people that they can't all get out quickly in an emergency).
o Maintaining proper fire exits and proper signage of them (e.g., exit signs pointing to them that can function in a power failure)
o Placing and maintaining fire extinguishers and fire alarms in easily accessible places.
o Properly storing/using, and/or banning of flammable materials that may be needed inside the building for storage or operational requirements (such as solvents in spray booths).
o Routinely inspecting public buildings for violations, issuing orders to comply and, potentially, prosecuting or closing buildings that are not in compliance, until the violations are corrected or condemning it in extreme cases.
o Installing and maintaining fire alarm control panels for quick detection and warning of fire.
o Obtaining and maintaining a complete inventory of fire stops.
o Ensuring that all spray fireproofing remains undamaged.
o Maintaining a high level of training and awareness of occupants and users of the building to avoid obvious mistakes, such as the propping open of fire doors.

The Fire code (also Fire prevention code or Fire safety code) is a model code adopted on a regional basis and enforced by fire prevention officers within municipal fire departments. It is a lawful set of rules prescribing minimum requirements to prevent fire and explosion hazards arising from storage, handling, or use of dangerous materials, or from other specific hazardous conditions. The fire code complements the building code. In the event of changes to fire safety provisions within a building, or a change of occupancy, the fire code typically references the building code, which can result in a requirement upon the owner to apply for a building permit to ensure proper review and lawful execution of contemplated changes that can have an effect upon fire safety and/or structural integrity. The building code includes construction requirements to minimize fire spread, enable suppression and detection and to provide for safe and rapid evacuation in the event of a fire. Although both codes address similar issues, the fire code is aimed primarily at preventing fires in the first place, including outside of buildings, and that necessary training and equipment will be on hand and the design basis of the building, which includes a basic plan set out by the architect is not compromised. The fire code also addresses inspection and maintenance requirements of various fire protection equipments in order to maintain optimal active fire protection and passive fire protection measures, with the aim of preserving stringent bounding.

A fire safety code includes administrative sections about the rule making and enforcement process, and other substantive sections dealing with fire suppression equipment, particular hazards such as containers and transportation for combustible materials, and specific rules for hazardous occupancies, industrial processes, and exhibitions.

Section may lay out the requirements for obtaining permits, and specific safety measures required to remain in compliance with a permit. For example, a fireworks exhibition may require an application to be filed by a regionally licensed pyrotechnician, providing the information necessary for issuing the authority to determine whether the safety requirements can be met. Once a permit is issued, the same authority or another delegated authority may inspect the site and watch the safety during the demonstration, with the power to halt unapproved operations, or where unforeseen hazards occur.

These are the lists of some typical fire and explosion issues to be dealt with in a fire protection code:
• Fireworks, explosives, mortars and cannons, model rockets (licenses for manufacture, storage, transportation, sale, use)
• Certification for servicing, placement, and inspecting fire extinguishing equipment
• General storage and handling of flammable liquids, solids, gases (tanks, personnel training, markings, equipment)
• Limitations on locations and quantities of flammables (e.g., 10 liters of gasoline inside a residential dwelling)
• Specific uses and specific flammables (e.g., dry cleaning, gasoline distribution, explosive dusts, pesticides, space heaters, plastics manufacturing)
• Permits and limitations in various building occupancies (assembly hall, hospital, school, theatre, elderly care, prisons, warehouses, etc)
• Locations that require a smoke detector, sprinkler system, fire extinguisher, or other specific equipment or procedures
• Removal of interior and exterior obstructions to emergency exits or firefighters and removal of hazardous materials
• Permits and limitations in special outdoor applications (tents, asphalt kettles, bonfires, etc)
• Other hazards (flammable decorations, welding, smoking, bulk matches, tire yards)

• Electrical safety code: The National Electrical Code (NEC) is a standard for the safe installation of electrical wiring and equipment. It is part of the Indian National Fire Codes series published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). While the INEC is not itself a law. The NEC codifies the requirements for safe electrical installations into a single, standardized source.


Fire in Industries or Machinery Space


When a fire occurs in machinery space or in any industries, the fire brigade must be called immediately no matter how small the outbreak. They will wish to at the gangway by a responsible personnel who can act as guide and provide as much as possible of the following information.

• Whereabouts of fire.
• Men of access.
• Details of goods together with stowage plan.
• Ventilation arrangements.
• Stability data.
• Any person missing.
• What fire fighting steps have been taken?
• Condition of ship’s services.
• Details of fixed installation, fire and general arrangements.

On a large industrials space fire brigades may need several members of crew to act as a guides, contrary to popular belief, most fire brigades prefer to fight a fire with member of that location who have idea about of that locality, rather than relieve them completely.



Fire Alarms & Fire Action


Fire alarm varies it can be smoke alarm, heat or flam alarm, so every person must know or can recognize the fire alarm or familiar with the fire alarm. And have to follow the following steps:

• Immediately leave that place, building, locality, ignore the use of lifts, exit must be through of fire exit. So every must now the fire exit of that locality and assemble at any fire assemble or safe place.
• Check the location of fire, which will be shown on the Bridge of fire control Station.
• One man to stand by at the main valve of the installation. Ascertain the extent of fire.
• Lay out a line of hose and bring portable extinguisher to the scene.
• When it is certain that the fire is extinguished, shut off the main stop valve and the alarm connection plug cock. Open the drain and test valves fully.
• Examine the fire area and ensure there is no fire burning behind paneling, under bunks etc.

Action after Fire
Immediate action must be taken to put the system back into working order after the fire.

• Any sprinkler heads, which have been actuated by the fire, must be replaced.
• Close the drain and test valves and open the main stop valve slightly, allowing Water to full the pipes slowly. When the two pressure gauges show same reading, valve can be fully opened and locked in that position.
• All salt water must be completely drained the system.
• The pressure tank must now be filled and the whole installation charged with Fresh water. The tank should be brought to correct level and air pressure.


Fire Fighting


Fire fighting is a procedure to extinguish an unwanted fire. A fire fighter fights against fire and prevents fires and destruction of life and property threatened by fire. In all but the most trivial cases, knowledge and expertise are necessary for successful and safe fire-fighting.

Historically, fire scientists created a graphical representation detailing the three elements fire needs to start (fire triangle). In recent years, one more point has been added, creating the fire tetrahedron.

The four elements needed for combustion (a form of oxidation; see the article on combustion) are:

• Combustible matter (fuel): paper, wood, gasoline, oil, gas, etc.;
• a combustive agent, i.e. an oxidant, usually the oxygen of the air;
• Activation energy: heat, spark (electricity), etc.
• A chemical chain reaction needed to sustain fire.

To extinguish a fire, it is necessary to remove one or several of the four components of combustion. Removing them will stop the other elements from interacing and not allow combustion to occur. Once the fire has been suppressed, it is necessary to reduce the temperature of the surrounding objects so the fire does not start again. It is also necessary to remove debris from the affected areas so the fuel load left in the room is diminished.

Firefighters save lives and property. A fire can rapidly spread to risk hundreds and even hundreds of thousands of lives. However, with modern methods, a firefighter generally does not have to intentionally sacrifice his life in the effort to save others, and most professional firefighters (especially since they control fires every working day) develop plans that follow the "first two rules of firefighting":

• 1. Do not harm yourself.
• 2. Do not hurt other people in the process.

Thus firefighting includes public education, research & development of methods and professional standards including safe building design, and inspection work. Because firefighters are often the first responders to people in critical condition, firefighters often practice basic life support, often as licensed paramedics.

Risk of Fire

The primary risk to people in a fire is smoke inhalation (breathing in smoke); most of those killed in fires die from this, not from burns. The risks of smoke include:

• suffocation due to the fire consuming or displacing all the oxygen from the air;
• poisonous gases produced by the fire;
• Smoke (fine particles) that can burn inside the lungs.

As an example, plastics inside a car can generate 200,000 m3 of smoke at a rate of 20 to 30 m3/sec. Firefighters carry breathing apparatus (SCBA) to prevent smoke inhalation.

Obvious risks stem from heat. Even without contact with the flames, there are a number of comparably serious risks: burns from infrared radiation (radiated heat, like a domestic grill), contact with a hot object, hot gases (e.g., air), steam produced by spraying, and hot or toxic smoke. Firefighters are normally equipped with personal protective equipment (PPE) that includes fire-resistant clothing and helmets that slow down the diffusion of the heat towards the skin.

The heat can make pressurized gas cylinders and tanks explode, producing what is called a BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion). Some chemical products such as ammonium nitrate fertilizers can also explode. Explosions can cause physical trauma or potentially serious blast or shrapnel injuries.

Heat causes human flesh to burn as fuel causing severe medical problems; very likely death. Depending upon the heat of the fire, burns can occur in a fraction of a second. A first degree burn (on the skin surface) is extremely painful. A second degree burn is a burn into the skin, and can cause shock, infections, and dehydration, which untreated often, results in death. Third degree burns leave muscles and internal organs exposed from completely destroyed skin. If the person survives the shock and exposure to germs, medical treatment is extremely difficult.

Additional risks of firefighting encompass the following:
• Vision can be obscured by the smoke: a person inside the building may not be able to see, can fall, or become disoriented and lost; becoming trapped and killed by the smoke or fire.
• The building can collapse on its occupants.

Means to extinguish a fire
The firefighting team analyzes the situation, creates a safe plan, and usually attack the fire by one or more means of suppressing its fuel source or its source of combustion as in the model above; accompanied with possible rescue work; and followed by stopping any sources of heat that could re-start the fire. The following are some common methods for extinguishing fires:

Reconnaissance and reading the fire

The first step of the operations is a reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire (which may not be obvious for an indoor fire, especially when there are no witnesses), and spot the specific risks and the possible casualties. Any fire occurring outside may not require reconnaissance; on the other hand, a fire in a cellar or an underground car park with only a few centimeters of visibility may require a long reconnaissance to spot the seat of the fire.

The "reading" of the fire is the analysis by the firefighters of the forewarnings of a thermal accident (flashover, back draft, smoke explosion), which is performed during the reconnaissance and the fire suppression maneuvers. The main signs are:

• hot zones, which can be detected with a gloved hand, especially by touching a door before opening it;
• the presence of soot on the windows, which usually means that combustion is incomplete and thus there is a lack of air
• smoke goes in and out from the door frame, as if the fire breathes, which usually means a lack of air to support combustion;
• spraying water on the ceiling with a short pulse of a diffused spray (e.g. cone with an opening angle of 60°) to test the heat of the smoke;
o when the temperature is moderate, the water falls down in drops with a sound of rain;
o When the temperature is high, it vaporizes with a hiss.

Suppressing the fuel and the energy

The first method is to remove fuel for the fire by, for example, cutting off the domestic gas supply and moving combustible objects from the path of the fire. When the activation energy is still present, it is also useful to switch it off; this will not stop a fire, but will help in controlling a starting fire and will prevent a new fire from occurring.

The first action is thus to "cut off the energies", such as domestic gas and electricity, and switch off working machines (motors). It is also important to turn off ventilation and air conditioning, as they supply oxygen which supports combustion and can dangerously change the behaviour of the fire.

Use of water

Often, the main way to extinguish a fire is to spray with water. The water has two roles:
• In contact with the fire, it vaporizes, and this vapour displaces the oxygen (the volume of water vapour is 1,700 times greater than liquid water); leaving the fire with not enough combustive agent to continue, and it dies out.

• the vaporization of water absorbs the heat; it cools the smoke, air, walls, objects in the room, etc., that could act as further fuel, and thus prevents one of the means that fires grow, which is by "jumping" to nearby heat/fuel sources to start new fires, which then combine.

The extinction is thus a combination of "asphyxia" and cooling. The flame itself is suppressed by asphyxia, but the cooling is the most important element to master a fire in a closed area.

Open air fire

For fires in the open, the seat of the fire is sprayed with a straight spray: the cooling effect immediately follows the "asphyxia" by vapor, and reduces the amount of water required. A straight spray is used so the water arrives massively to the seat without being vaporized before. A strong spray may also have a mechanical effect: it can disperse the combustible product and thus prevent the fire from starting again.

The fire is always fed with air, but the risk to people is limited as they can move away, except in the case of wildfires or bushfires where they can be surrounded by the flames. But there might be a big risk of expansion.

Spray is aimed at a surface, or object: for this reason, the strategy is sometimes called two-dimensional attack or 2D attack.

It might be necessary to protect specific items (house, gas tank) against infrared radiation, and thus to use a diffused spray between the fire and the object.

Breathing apparatus is often required as there is still the risk of breathing in smoke or poisonous gases.



Special Equipment and Techniques


• Fireman’s outfit includes
• Breathing Apparatus
• Water resisting protective clothing of material to protect the skin from heat radiating from the fire and from burns and scalding steam.
• Boots and gloves of rubber of other electrically non-conducting material.
• Rigid helmets
• An electrically intrinsically safe hand lamp with minimum of 3 hrs duration
• An axe with a short insulation handle.
• A strong fire proof life line
• A belt for carrying the ancillary equipment.

The breathing apparatus should consist of either a self contained apparatus of approved type of a smoke helmet or mask, supplied with air pump a length of flexible hose exceeding 36 meters sufficient to reach from the open deck to any part of the holds or machinery spaces. The self-contained apparatus should consist of a facemask attached by a flexible hose to one to two cylinders containing air and supported on frame and harness. The capacity of the apparatus should not be less than 1200 liters to give a nominal functioning time 30 minutes.

• Air monitoring meter: electronic device for measuring the presence of one or more chemicals in air, such as oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide or volatile organic compounds; may have preset danger threshold alarms.
• Airpack: jargon for self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
• APW: Air-pressurized water fire extinguisher, partially filled with water and then pressurized with an air pump; popular in the US in the 2 1/2-gallon size, rated 2A.
• Extinguisher: Device containing fire suppressant, often pressurized to expel suppressant when triggered by operator or an automatic release mechanism. Important to properly select type of extinguisher appropriate to type of material burning (wood, grease, electrical, etc). May be portable or permanently installed for special suppression purposes, such as fires in aircraft engines, restaurant exhaust hoods, or computer rooms.
• Extrication gloves: Work gloves designed for vehicle extrication and other rescue applications, but not rated for firefighting. They resemble mechanics gloves but are made of tougher material, often Kevlar, and designed to protect against cuts from glass and metal.
• Fire axe
• Fire Hydrant
• Ground Ladder
• Hook
• Life Safety Line: A rope used where its failure could result in serious injury; a rope used for connecting a firefighter/rescuer to a fixed anchor point or to another person.
• Self Contained Breathing Apparatus, or air-pack, worn by firefighters to protect against breathing toxic fumes and smoke, or where the air has insufficient oxygen. Often incorrectly called "oxygen mask" by laypersons. Typically of open circuit style, with a supply of compressed air, where expired air is exhausted, rather than closed circuit where it is filtered, re-oxygenated from compressed oxygen, and inhaled again — which is used where an air supply is needed for an extended period (up to four hours).
• Shove knife: semi-rigid metallic blade of various shapes and sizes used for forcing spring latches during forcible entry.
• Ventilation saw: A high-powered saw with metal-cutting teeth or disc for quickly making large openings in roofing materials.
• Self contained breathing apparatus

A self-contained breathing apparatus or SCBA is a device worn by rescue workers, firefighters, and others to provide breathable air in a hostile environment. When not used underwater, they are sometimes called industrial breathing sets. The term "self-contained" differentiates SCBA from other apparatus connected to a remote supply by a long hose. If designed for use under water, it is called SCUBA, or self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.



Training and Awareness


Training and awareness regarding Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting is essential for every Person, time to time updating requires related in a correct manner in the event of an outbreak of fire, take appropriate measures of the safety of personnel, property and knowledge of fire fighting equipment correctly.



First Aid and Miscellaneous


Causes and Care


Asphyxiation
• Poisoning
• Burns (skin & damaged tissues)
• Pain
• Shock
Asphyxiation may be the result of (suffocation)

Fires causing oxygen shortage
An extinguishing gas replacing air. Poisoning caused by:
Carbon monoxide, which is produced in most fires
Toxic combustion products of fire

Damaged tissue may lead to:
• Loss of function of parts of the body
• Infection
• Mutilations / scarring / disfigurement
• Burnt skin may interfere with breathing function, which may cause death.
• Secondary shock is a serious condition-caused by the collection of body fluids in blisters, and must always be suspected except with minor burns.

Asphyxiation

In layman’s terms this is called suffocation. Asphyxia is a condition in which the lungs do not get sufficient supply of air for breathing. If this continues for some minutes, breathing and heart action stops, and death occur.

In a fire circumstance, asphyxia can be caused by air-borne toxic and asphyxiating gases which may be the products of the fire reaction.

A casualty who has been overcome by asphyxia should be immediately administered resuscitation. It is commonly termed as artificial respiration and is necessary when as result of some accident; a casualty cannot breathe normally or has ceased to breathe.

Poisoning

Some substance when taken into the body in fairly large quantities can be dangerous to health or can cause death, such substances are called poisons. A poison may enter the body by ingestion, injections, inhalation or absorption. Fumes or gases from a fire may be poisonous. These airborne toxins usually are likely to enter the body by absorption or inhalation. A casualty overcome by an airborne toxin should be immediately shifted to fresh air and resuscitated.

Burns and Scalds

Burns are injuries that result form dry heat like fire, flame, a piece of hot metal, or the sun, contact with wire carrying high tension electric current or by lighting or friction. Scalds are caused by moist heat due to boiling water, steam, oil hot tat etc.

Chemical burns are caused by strong acids (example Sulfuric acid, Nitric acid) or by strong Alkalies (Caustic Soda, Caustic Potash, quick lime or strong Ammonia).

A Nuclear burn is caused by the instantaneous flash of intense heat given off by a nuclear explosion. It is capable of causing superficial burns on the exposed skin of persons several miles away.

The degree of burns indicates the degree of damage to the tissues. These are three degree of burns:
First degree     :     When the skin is reddened
Second degree    :     When there are blisters on the skin, and
Third degree     :     When there is destruction of deepe Tissues and charring.

The danger form burns depends on the area of the burns rather than the degree. Superficial burns over a large area of the body are more dangerous than the complete charring of a part of a limb. It must be noted that in the same person, different parts of the body may show different degree of burns.

For purpose of determining the percentage of area burnt the body is divided into several parts. Each part is allotted percentages as follow:
Face         9%
Each Hand         9%
Chest Front and Bank each     9%
Abdomen Front and back each 9%
Each Thigh     9%
Each Calf and Foot     9%
Genitals         1%

Any burn of over 30% - irrespective of deep degree-should be hospitalized at the earliest opportunity.

Dangers Due to Fire

Helping a person whose clothes have caught fire:
• Put out the flame by water
• Do not allow the person to run about. This only fans the fire and may the flame spread.
• Use personal fire protection suits or at least a fire blanket or equivalent, while approaching a man whose clothing’s have caught fire.
• Lay him down quickly on the ground.
• If the clothes in front the body have caught fire, la him on his back and vice versa, till water or other non-flammable material is brought to quench the flame.

Rescuing Persons form Fire

• In rescuing persons form a space which has caught fires, speed and clear thinking are required.
• Remember, clean air is at ground level. So crawl along the floor to pull out a person who is lying unconscious or is disabled.
• Ensure that the rescuer uses breathing apparatus to avoid being the next casualty.
• When there is a fire in which the doors and windows are closed, do not open the windows and doors to let in air. The rush of air will increase the fire and it will burn more intensely.

Results of Burns
Immediate:
• Intense pain
• Shock

Later:
• There may be infection in the damaged area.
• After healing, it will leave scares causing disfigurement and / or restriction of movements.

Management of Serious Burns and Scalds
Immediate attention that is required is serious burns are:
• Keep the casualty quiet and reassure him.
• Cover the casualty with a clean cloth.
• Do not remove adhering particles of charred clothing.
• Cover burnt area with sterile or clean dressing and bandage. In case of burns covering a large part of the body, it is sufficient to cover the area with a clean sheet or towel.
• Keep him warm bur do not overheat him.
• If the hands are involved, keep them above the level of the victim’s heart.
• Keep burnt feet of legs elevated.
• If victim’s face is burnt, sit up or prop him up and keep him under continuous observation for breathing difficulty. If respiratory problems develop, an open airway must be maintained.
• Do not immerse the extensive burnt area or apply ice-water over it because clod may intensify the shock reaction. However a cold pack may be applied to the face or to the hands or feet.
• Shift the casualty to the nearest hospital if he is fit to be moved.
• Do not open blister – Keep him wrapped up in clean cloth,
• Treat for shock
• Remove quickly from the body anything of a constriction nature like rings, bangles, belt and boots. If this is not done early, it would be difficult to remove them later as the limp begins to swell.

Management of Minor Burns and Scalds
In the case of minor burns:
• Submerge the burnt area in cold water.
• Clean the area gently with clean water.
• Cover with dry dressing.
• Do not apply cotton wool direct to the burnt.
• Do not apply any greasy substance as long as the tissue is not cool.
• Give warm drinks for example sweetened tea or coffee.

Management of Chemical Burns
• Cut out contaminated clothing.
• Wash off the chemical with a large quantity of water by using a shower or running water as quickly as possible. This flooding with water will wash away most of the irritants.
• Do not touch the burnt area with bare fingers.
• Treat as for burns.
• If eyes are effected by the chemical, attend to it urgently flush eyes with copious amounts of water and avoid rubbing eyes.

Electrical Burns

Electrical burns are caused by a high current or voltage passing through the body.

High voltage industrial (Power) current can jump 16 – 18 meters and kill the rescuer. Therefore do no approach the casualty till the switch has been turned off. These currents not only cause local damage but affect the respiratory and cardiac centers. They produce superficial or deep burns including charring, but also cause stoppage of breathing and heart beat.

Treatment of Electrical Burns
• Separate the casualty form the cause of injury.
• Cover the burn.
• Teat the shock.
• If breathing or heart beat has stopped, resuscitate.
• Put in recovery position
• Treat the casualty after removal to sick bay.


Question and Answer


You Must See


Question: What is Fire?
Answer: Fire is an external sign of chemical reaction, usually with the combination of hydrocarbons with oxygen, resulting in the release of energy.

Question: How Fires Starts?
Answer: To start Fire it is necessary to apply a flame or a spark, having a certain amount of energy value, to a material that has been raised to a certain threshold temperature sufficient to release inflammable gases, which conduct the continuation of fire.

Question: What are three essential things which start Fire or what are the elements of Fire?
Answer: There are three things that result in fire or combustion:
1. Combustible material
2. Oxygen the fuel sources, and
3. Ignition Source, the heat source

Question: What is the basis of Control a Fire?
Answer: There are following steps to control this fire:
1. Remove the source of fuel by marking a boundary or removing the fuel itself.
2. Remove oxygen by obstructing the air or oxygen supply.
3. Remove heat or flame by supplying water or fire extinguisher against fire.

Question: How the Term “F.I.R.E” Stands for?
Answer:
FIND the fire, the location, and its size.
INFORM person in charge.
RESTRICT the fire.
EXTINGUISH the fire.

Question: What is Fire Fighting Strategy?
Answer: Fire Triangle is easy method to understand what Fire is and shows the relation between Combustible material, Oxygen and Heat So once any fuel Source like flame, small spark, any flickers, or any heat source come in contact of any combustible substance in the presence of oxygen combustion or fire takes place.

Question: What are the methods of extinguish Fire?
Answer: The methods of extinguishing fire are as given below:
• Starving
• Smothering
• Cooling
• Inhibition or retarding of the combustion reaction

Question: What is Starving?
Answer: Starvation is achieved by removal of the fuel burning in the fire. Sometimes combustible material can be removed by shutting off gas valves or fuel flows.

Question: What is Smothering?
Answer: By excluding the oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere the fire will be extinguished.

Question: What is cooling?
Answer: The most commonly used fire fighting medium is water. Water absorbs heat from the fire and cools the fuel to a temperature where it no longer produces flammable vapors.

Question: What is the retarding of the combustion reaction?
Answer: Stopping or interrupting the chain reaction between the fuel, heat, and oxygen will extinguish the fire. Specific methods of extinguishing fires often involve a combination of more than one of the four principles.

Question: What is Flammable Range?
Answer: It is the range of concentration of flammable vapors in air within which the vapors and air mixture is flammable.

Question: What is Static Electricity?
Answer: It is the electricity produces on dissimilar materials through physical contact and separation, for example, a sampling apparatus lowered in to a tank containing charged petroleum liquid.

Question: What is upper flammable limit?
Answer: It is that concentration of flammable vapors in air below which there is insufficient flammable vapors to support and propagate combustion.

Question: What is Flash Point?
Answer: It is the lowest temperature at which the vapors of a substance are available in sufficient quantity to produce a momentary flash when a flame is applied.

Question: What is the Cause of Electrical Hazards?
Answer: Electrical hazards
• Damaged wiring.
• Damaged plugs.
• Damp or wet wires.
• Overloaded motors.
• Broken switches, outlets, or sockets.
• Problems with lighting fixtures.
• Faulty heating elements.
• Overloaded circuits.
• Liquids near computers.
• Computers without surge protectors.

Question: What is the Cause of Housekeeping Hazards?
Answer:
• Piles of scrap, waste materials, and trash.
• Sawdust, metal or plastic powder that can form an explosive mixture with air.
• Obstructed aisles.
• Blocked emergency exits.
• Material covering up fire extinguishers, exit signs, and alarms.
• Blocked sprinkler heads.

Question: What are the Industrial Hazards?
Answer: Process or operation-related hazards or Industrial Hazards
• Cutting and welding operations, which use open flames and produce spark
• Molten metal, which can ignite combustibles or fall into cracks and start a fire that might not erupt until after the work is done.
• Processes that heat materials to high temperatures.
• Drying operations where materials in dryers can overheat.
• Grinding operations that produce sparks and dust.
• Processes in which flammable vapors are released.

Question: What are the Smoking Hazards?
Answer:
• Ignoring "No Smoking" signs.
• Smoking around flammable or combustible materials.
• Throwing matches and cigarettes or cigars on tables or workbenches.
• Tossing butts on the floor or grass without properly extinguishing them in an ashtray or ash can.
• Tossing lighted butts or matches out windows or doors.
• Smoking in bed.
• Leaving a cigarette/cigar unattended.
• Smoking in areas where there is an accumulation of sawdust, plastic or metal powders that may become explosive

Question: What is Type of Fire?
Answer: There are Five Type of Fire which is classified as:
1. Class A
2. Class B
3. Class C
4. Class D
5. Class E

Question: What is “Class A” Fire?
Answer: Class A fires involving ordinary combustible materials or solid combustible material (contains compound of carbon) such as paper, wood and textile fibers, or any solid material.

Question: What is “Class B fires”?
Answer: Class B fires involving combustible and flammable liquids and gases, such as gasoline, kerosene, grease, tar, acetone, fingernail polish, some household cleaning products, etc. Some plastics are considered class B because they melt first and then burn just like a flammable liquid.

Question: What is “Class C fires”?
Answer: Class C fires involving energized electrical equipment.

Question: What is “Class D fires”?
Answer: Class D fires involving combustible metals such as magnesium, sodium, potassium, titanium, and aluminum.

Question: What are Class E fires?
Answer: Class E Fires involving commercial cooking appliances with vegetable oils, animal oils, or fats at high temperatures.

Question: If a person cannot evacuate during a Fire?
Answer:
• Close the room using wet clothing or towels to stuff around cracks in doors and seal up vents. Close doors and protect yourself against smoke.
• Use Water keeping a wet cloth over you nose and mouth; breathe through nose only. Wet down walls, doors, and windows.
• Signal for help by calling the building management for help, if you have no phone, signal at the window for help.
• Do not break windows as flames and smoke can travel back into the house from the outside. If you need air, open the window a crack, but be ready to close it immediately.
• Don’t jump; wait to be rescued, if you are above the second floor. By remaining calm, you increase your chances of survival!

Question: What is type of Source of Heat Energy?
Answer:
• Chemical Heat Energy
• Mechanical Heat Energy
• Electrical Heat Energy

Question: What is Chemical Heat Energy?
Answer:
• Heat of combustion
• Heat of partial oxidation.;
• Spontaneous heating.
• Heat of decomposition (onion, potato, etc. in charge hold).
• Heat of solution (mix of two chemicals).

Question: What is Mechanical Heat Energy?
Answer:
• Friction heating.
• Frictional sparks.
• Heat of compression

Question: What are the sources of Ignition?
Answer:
• Heated surface.
• Cloth, newspaper on hot surface.
• Faulty machineries, electrical fittings, etc.
• Sparks (lighter, grinding, welding, cutting, funnel, etc).
• Electrical overloading/Heating.
• Impact spark (tool falling down to tank etc).
• Static sparks (removal of nylon banian etc).
• Spontaneous combustion.

Question: What are the Stages of Combustion?
Answer:
• Incipient Stage - At this stage, decomposition is occurring at the surface of the fuel due to the influence of some form of heat. Products of combustion given off at this stage are invisible to the eye.

• Smoldering Stage - At this stage, up to 10% of the decomposing product released at the surface of the fuel are visible.

• Flaming Stage - Vapors from the decomposing fuel has ignited and is at the stage where flames are self propagating.

• Heat Stage - At this stage the burning has progressed to the point where the fire is still small but generating sufficient heat to warm the air immediately around the fire, sending warm products of combustion upwards by convection.

Question: What are the three major things for Fire Protection?
Answer:
• Life safety (minimum standard in fire and building codes).
• Property protection (typically an insurance requirement, or a regulatory requirement where the protection of building components is necessary to enable life safety).
• Continuity of operations (typically an insurance requirement or an item of self-motivation for building owners - not a regulatory issue). Interruption of operations due to fire damage can be very costly.

Question: What is Passive Fire Protection?
Answer: Passive fire protection (use of integral, fire-resistance rated wall and floor assemblies that are used to form fire compartments intended to limit the spread of fire, or occupancy separations, or firewalls to keep fires, high temperatures and flue gases within the fire compartment of origin, thus enabling firefighting and evacuation).

Question: What is Active Fire Protection?
Answer: Active fire protection either manual or automatic to detect and suppression of fires.

Question: What is immediate action on discovering a fire?
Answer:
• Operate nearest fire alarm/call point/call the fire brigade
• If possible tackle the fire using the appliances provided
• Leave the building by the nearest available exit/route
• Report to person in charge of assembly point
• Do not take risk
• Do not stop to collect personal belongings
• Do not use lifts
• Do not re-enter the building for any reason unless authorized to do so.

Question: What the initial action you are going to take after hearing fire alarm?
Answer:
• Leave by the nearest/safest fire exit, escorting visitors, employee etc.
• Do not use the lifts.
• Do not stop to collect personal belongings.
• Report to your designated assembly point.
• Do not re-enter the building until you have been told that it is safe to do so.

Question: If somebody trapped by smoke what he is going to do?
Answer: If someone becomes trapped by smoke, you should:
• Lie on the floor.
• Breathe through your nose.
• Crawl to safety.
Raise the alarm when it is safe to do so

Question: How many types of Fire detectors?
Answer:
1. Smoke detector
2. Flame detector
3. Heat Detector
4. Temperature Detector

Question: What is a Fire Fighting Extinguisher?
Answer: A fire extinguisher is a fire protection device used against of fires, often in emergency situations. Fire extinguishers consist of pressurized containers of chemicals that, when discharged, can put out fires. It is important for users to familiarize themselves with the use of fire extinguishers in their vicinity, as improper or untimely use, contrary to bounding, may be counterproductive.

Question: Types of Fire Extinguishers?
Answer: There are five types of Fire Extinguishers:
1. Class A extinguishers
2. Class B extinguishers
3. Class C extinguishers
4. Class D extinguishers
5. Multi class extinguishers

Question: What is the kind of Class A fire extinguishers?
Answer:
• Dry chemical or powder extinguishers
• Water and compressed gas extinguishers

Question: What are the kind of Class B extinguishers?
Answer:
• Dry chemical or powder
• Carbon Dioxide (CO2) extinguishers

Question: What are the kinds of Class C extinguishers?
Answer:
• Halon extinguishers
• Carbon Dioxide extinguishers

Question: What is the kind of Class D extinguishers?
Answer:
• Dry chemical or powder extinguishers
• Carbon Dioxide (CO2) extinguishers

Question: How to use Fire extinguishers?
Answer:
Pull the pin at the top of the extinguisher that keeps the handle from being accidentally pressed
Aim the nozzle toward the base of the fire
Stand approximately 8 feet away from the fire and squeeze the handle to discharge the extinguisher. If you release the handle, the discharge will stop.
Sweep the nozzle back and forth at the base of the fire. After the fire appears to be out, watch it carefully since it may reignite!

Question: What is Fire Hydrant?
Answer: A fire hydrant is a fire protection measure, and a source of water provided in most urban, suburban and rural areas with municipal water service to enable firefighters to tap into the municipal water supply to assist in extinguishing a fire.

Question: What is Fire hose?
Answer: A fire hose is a thick, high-pressure hose used to carry water or other fire retardant (such as foam) to a fire to extinguish it. Outdoors, it is attached either to a fire engine or a fire hydrant. Indoors, it can be permanently attached to a building's standpipe or plumbing system.

Question: What is Fire Nozzle?
Answer: Fire Nozzle is a tip which is used in the front of Fire hose to provide a sufficient working pressure.

Question: What is Fireman’s outfit or fire fighter dress?
Answer: Fire proximity Suit or fire man’s outfit or fire fighter outfit (aka silvers or silver bunker suit) is a suit designed to protect a firefighter from high temperatures and fires. They are manufactured from vacuum deposited aluminized materials that reflect the high radiant loads produced by the fire.

Question: What is the Personal Protective Equipment when fighting against fire?
Answer:
• Boiler suit
• Safety Shoes
• Safety Gloves
• Helmets
• Safety Goggles

Question: What is self contained breathing apparatus?
Answer: A self-contained breathing apparatus or SCBA is a device worn by rescue workers, firefighters, and others to provide breathable air in a hostile environment. When not used underwater, they are sometimes called industrial breathing sets. The term "self-contained" differentiates SCBA from other apparatus connected to a remote supply by a long hose. If designed for use under water, it is called SCUBA, or self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.

Question: What is fire blanket?
Answer: A fire blanket is a safety device designed to extinguish small incipient (starting) fires.

Question: What is Adapter?
Answer: It is a plumbing accessory for connecting hoses and pipes of incompatible diameter, thread, or gender. It May contain combinations, such as a double-female reducer. Adapters between multiple hoses are called wye, Siamese, or distributor.

Question: What is Aerial apparatus?
Answer: A fire truck having an attached extension ladder, nozzle, man-lift-bucket, or similar device raised using power from the truck. It may also carry other portable ladders and tools.

Question: What is Air monitoring meter?
Answer: An electronic device for measuring the presence of one or more chemicals in air, such as oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide or volatile organic compounds; may have preset danger threshold alarms.

Question: What is Airbags?
Answer:
(1) Inflatable device used for lifting or spreading
(2) vehicle safety device with potential explosion hazard during vehicle extrication if not already blown.

Question: What is APW?
Answer: Air-pressurized water fire extinguisher partially filled with water and then pressurized with an air pump.

Question: What is Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF)?
Answer: Bubbles that act as surfactant to coat and penetrate ordinary fuels (e.g., wood, paper) to prevent them from burning at normal temperatures; also used on "Class B" (oil/gasoline) fires to spread a non-volatile film over the surface of the fuel. Applied using educator or Compressed air foam system (CAFS) and pumped through firehose to a foam nozzle (or sometimes a less-effective fog nozzle).

Question: What is Attack hose?
Answer: A use classification of a fire fighting hose connected to output of a pump or other pressure source (e.g., gravity). Firehose used to apply water or other fire fighting agent directly to a fire or burning substance.

Question: Why Attic ladder is used for?
Answer: A narrow, collapsible ladder used to access an attic space via a scuttle hole, which is often found in closets and other narrow passages. It is also known as a closet ladder.

Question: How Automatic sprinkler works?
Answer: This is system of valves and pipes for automatically directing water to a fire when it is detected. May be normally pressurized with water ("wet") or with air ("dry"), depending upon the application. When a sprinkler-head (or sensor) detects fire/heat, the valve opens, releasing the water (hopefully onto the fire).

Question: What is a Bed ladder?
Answer: the non-extending section of an extension ladder.

Question: Why Booster hose used for?
Answer: Small-diameter fire hose (3/4-1 inch), often carried on booster reel, preconnected to pump of an engine (and the booster tank) for putting out small fires near the truck without having to connect to a fire hydrant; easily recovered with a motorized reel.

Question: which type of Bresnan cellar nozzle is?
Answer: Rotating nozzle tip having two or more outlets forming water jets that propel the tip while spraying water in a circular pattern; conveniently attached to several feet (a meter) of rigid pipe with handles or legs for supporting the nozzle while it is suspended through a hole in the floor above.

Question: Bulk tank in sense of fire brigade truck?
Answer: Large tank designed to be transported to an incident and left; larger than a fire brigade tank.

Question: What the term Bunkers (or "bunker gear")?
Answer: Colloquial term for protective pants and boots kept near a firefighter’s bunk (cot) for rapid deployment; more modernly includes firefighting jacket, basis for command to "Bunker up!" in preparation for hazardous duties. It may also refer to entire protective clothing ensemble.

Question: How Cellar fire controlled?
Answer: Cellar fires are difficult to attack directly because firefighters have to pass through the hot gasses and smoke accumulated on the cellar's ceiling to gain access to the cellar space. Cellars typically do not have good emergency egress points, adding to the danger.

Question: Description of Cellar pipe and Cellar Nozzle?
Answer: A distributing type nozzle that is inserted through an opening in the floor and into the space below, typically a basement or cellar. The nozzle directs a broken stream horizontally, either extinguishing or controlling the fire enough to allow a direct attack to be safely made. Can also be used on top of other containers.

Question: What is charged line?
Answer: fire hose under pressure from the pump at the engine.

Question: What is CO2 extinguisher?
Answer: Fire extinguisher that releases carbon dioxide gas to smother and cool a fire, such as a flammable liquid.

Question: What is Deluge system?
Answer: Type of sprinkler system in which sprinkler heads do not have individual valves, and the water (or other extinguishing agent) is disbursed from all sprinkler heads simultaneously when a central (or zoned) valve is triggered by a sensor (or manually). Typically reserved for industrial areas where rapid fire spread must be prevented at the cost of damaging non-burning materials.

Question: What is Denver Door opener?
Answer: A heavy pry bars connected with a hinge, one with an adjustable foot, used for prying open doors.

Question: What is Distributor pipe?
Answer: Portion of fire hydrant or sprinkler system connecting main loops to smaller loops where outlets are located.

Question: What is Double female?
Answer: A fire hose adapter for connecting two "male" couplings together; IT also adapt different sizes on either side.

Question: What is Dry hydrant?
Answer: A fire hydrant with a valve located at the bottom of the barrel, near the water main. The barrel of the hydrant remains dry until used. The prevents the hydrant from freezing in sub-zero temperatures. A dry hydrant is also an unpressurized pipe that can be used to draft water from a pond or lake.

Question: What are Dry powders?
Answer: Fire extinguishing agents for use on flammable metals. Each agent is typically designed for use on either a single metal or very similar metals.

Question: What is Dry sprinkler?
Answer: A sprinkler system having pressurized air (rather than water) in the distribution pipes until a heat-activated sprinkler head opens and releases the pressure, which opens a water valve (and possibly an accelerator valve) to flow water to the open head; used where the protected premises are not heated during freezing temperatures or where pressurized water in overhead sprinkler pipes could create another hazard.

Question: What is Eductor?
Answer: Suction device operated by hose pressure to pull fluid from a reservoir and mix it with the hose stream; often used to add foaming or other materials to water streams.

Question: What is Extension ladder?
Answer: A 20-60 foot ladder with one or more movable sections that extend beyond a base section, typically using a halyard rope and pulley mechanism for lifting and locking cams to latch the moving sections at a selected height.

Question: What is Fire alarm control panel?
Answer: System for receiving and announcing location of fire based upon input from smoke, flame or heat detectors, or manual call points or pull stations.

Question: what Fire department keys stand for?
Answer: Special keys provided to firefighters to access a lockbox, located on some commercial buildings, containing additional keys required for entry or other safety features.

Question: What are Fire streams?
Answer: Water (possibly mixed with foam) emitted at nozzle and directed at burning materials.

Question: What is Fog nozzle?
Answer: A nozzle that discharges water in small droplets. Oftentimes, the nozzles are adjustable, permitting the pattern to range from a straight stream to a narrow fog to a wide fog stream. It can also be designed to automatically adjust pressure depending upon selected pattern.

Question: What is Fog Stream?
Answer: A fire stream characterized by small droplets of water. The droplets are unable to travel very far, but absorb heat very quickly because of the high surface area they present.

Question: What is Gate valve?
Answer: Gate Valve in which the shutoff device slides across the flow of liquid to obscure the orifice, usually activated by a screw mechanism. Compare "ball valve."

Question: What is Gravity tank?
Answer: Water storage tank for fire protection; arranged above protected area to provide flow of water by gravity when needed.

Question: What Halon extinguishers stand for?
Answer: chemical gas fire extinguishing or liquid agent for diminishing the combustion reaction rate by acting as a thermal ballast; used mainly in closed computer rooms, aircraft, and other high-value installations where corrosive chemicals or water extinguishers are judged inappropriate. Effective at low concentrations (5%) as compared with CO2 (34%). Being phased out with suitable replacements in most applications, with very restricted exemptions, due to international environmental concerns with this and other CFCs.

Question: What is hard suction hose?
Answer: Non-collapsible sections of hose, usually 10 feet long, used when drafting.

Question: What is Hose?
Answer: flexible conduit for moving liquids under pressure; made of various materials including cotton, rubber or plastic (such as PVC); construction may be braided, woven, wrapped or extruded, often in layers (liner and jacket); hose construction and size differs according to its intended use (e.g., hard suction, attack, forestry, booster); typically stocked in standard lengths and coupled together with standardized fittings. See hose coupling.

Question: What is Hose bed?
Answer: part of fire engine (or hose wagon) where hose is stored for transport and easy access; stocked in layers or rows for quick selection of the desired length, diameter and type of hose; may include hoses "pre-connected" to pump outlets on the engine.

Question: What is Hose coupling?
Answer: rigid interlocking end-pieces on fire hose; used for connecting hose to hydrants or fire engine pumps and other hose appliances (nozzles, wyes, manifolds, strainers, etc); standardized sizes and threads or other (non-threaded) pressure-sustaining interlocks (e.g., "Storz" or other "quarter-turn" connectors); lugs, cams, or pins are used to tighten and loosen couplings by hand or with a hose wrench.

Question: What is Hose roller?
Answer: rigid frame with rollers designed to fit over windowsill or roof parapet to prevent chafing as hose is pulled across it. Can also refer to a machine designed for rolling hoses in preparation for storage.

Question: What is Life safety line?
Answer: A rope used where its failure could result in serious injury; a rope used for connecting a firefighter/rescuer to a fixed anchor point or to another person.

Question: What is a Nozzle?
Answer: A device attached to the end of a fire hose that directs shapes and regulates the flow of the water or fire fighting agent pumped into the hose. May have a control valve.

Question: What is Nozzle tip?
Answer: Portion of fire hose that forms the fire stream as it leaves the hose. Can be solid, fog, or other specialty nozzle (e.g., piercing, Bresnan cellar nozzle, wand tip, etc).

Question: What is PASS device?
Answer: personal alert safety system: An alarm device which signals that a firefighter is in trouble. It can be activated manually by the firefighter, or activates automatically if the firefighter stops moving. May be integral to SCBA or separately activated.

Question: What Passport (accountability) stands for?
Answer: System in which each firefighter has an identification document that is collected by the person in charge of accounting for the current location of the respective individuals, and returned to the firefighter when he or she leaves the dangerous area.

Question: What is Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV)?
Answer: Ventilation of an area by the use of a fan to push clean air into that space and controlled use of openings for the escape of smoke and gasses.

Question: What is Reducer?
Answer: Plumbing adapter for connecting hoses of two different diameters; may also be double male or double female connections of different sizes.

Question: What is Relief valve?
Answer: A valve set to open at a specified pressure so as to not exceed safe operating pressure in hoses or pumps.

Question: What is SCBA?
Answer: Self Contained Breathing Apparatus, or air-pack, worn by firefighters to protect against breathing toxic fumes and smoke, or where the air has insufficient oxygen. Often incorrectly called "oxygen mask" by laypersons. Typically of open circuit style, with a supply of compressed air, where expired air is exhausted, rather than closed circuit where it is filtered, re-oxygenated from compressed oxygen, and inhaled again — which is used where an air supply is needed for an extended period (up to four hours).

Question: what is Sprinkler system?
Answer: fire suppression system in a building, typically activated by individual heat-sensitive valves, or remotely controlled by other types of sensors, releasing water onto the fire. May be "wet" (water-filled) or "dry" (air-pressurized).

Question: What is Suction hose?
Answer: A large, semi-flexible and non collapsible hose used to move water from a static source such as a pond, pool or storage tank to a fire pump by means of suction. The whole process is often known as "drafting". Should not be used to connect pressurized hydrants to pumps.

Between two of the gated outlets or from a Siamese that has one inlet connected to one outlet of a gated wye.

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