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Top Ten Booming Industries



TopTenBoomingIndustries


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Indian Real Estate – A Booming Industry


Real estate market, which is about US$ 16 Billion at present, shall reach nearly US$ 60 Billion by the year 2010. And, approximately US$ 28 Billion of this will likely be provided by foreign investments in this sector. This information was revealed by a recent study namely "Future of Real Estate Investment in India " published by ASSOCHAM (Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India).

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The main reason behind this boom in Indian real estate industry is said to be government’s approval to allow 100% foreign direct investment (from March 2005) in this sector. Prior to this, only NRIs and people of Indian origin could invest in real estate and housing sectors in India.

Experts suggest that more companies will be attracted to India in the years to come, as a large number of Fortune 500 companies are present here.

Therefore, more corporate space will be required by these companies and dividends will increase for investors in this sector. At present, about 70% of foreign investors in this business are making huge profits and the rest are breaking even.

Shopping malls and controversial SEZs (Special Economic Zones) that detractors allege the government is misusing for selling prime-land at throwaway prices to large industrial houses will also attract foreign investment in this sector.

Property commentators are stunned by the manner real estate prices have almost doubled over the last three years in metropolitan cities like Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, and Mumbai. Besides big cities, with growth of above 50%, smaller cities are also observing healthy growth in this sector.

Corporate real estate rush is observed in almost every part of the country, even the cities in Himalayan region such as Mussourie, Shimla, and Dehradun aren’t untouched by this. Major companies are developing vacation homes and resorts in these cities.

As per a Research Analyst's view at RNCOS, who has recently researched a report on “Opportunities in Indian Housing Sector (2006-2007)", unless there’s a revolutionary change in market conditions, flows of funds into Indian real-estate sector from foreign investors will continue for at least a couple of years from now.

Key issues and facts analyzed by “Opportunities in Indian Housing Sector (2006-2007)” report include:

- Get an insight into the trends in market performance.

- Pinpoint sectors of growth and identify the driving factors.

- Housing industry is promoted and supported by housing finance companies in India.

- States in India will have the highest demands for the houses by the year 2010.

- Key Challenges and Strategies in this sector.


Indian retail Industry:


Indian Retail Industry is standing at its point of inflexion, waiting for the boom to take place. The inception of the retail industry dates back to times where retail stores were found in the village fairs , Melas or in the weekly markets. These stores were highly unorganized.

The maturity of the retail sector took place with the establishment of retail stores in the locality for convenience. With the government intervention the retail industry in India took a new shape. Outlets for Public Distribution System, Cooperative stores and Khadi stores were set up. These retail Stores demanded low investments for its establishment.

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The retail industry in India gathered a new dimension with the setting up of the different International Brand Outlets, Hyper or Super markets, shopping malls and departmental stores.

Key Players in the Indian Retail Sector:

The untapped scope of retailing has attracted superstores like Wal-Mart into India, leaving behind the kiranas that served us for years. Such companies are basically IT based. The other important participants in the Indian Retail sector are Bata, Big Bazaar, Pantaloons, Archies, Cafe Coffee Day, landmark, Khadims, Crossword, to name a few.

Retailing in India: a forecast:

Future of organized retail in India looks bright. According to recent researches it is projected to grow at a rate of about 37% in 2007 and at a rate of 42% in 2008. It will capture a share of 10% of the total retailing by the end of 2010.

According to the Union Minister of Commerce & Industry, Shri Kamal Nath, the organized retail sector is expected to grow to a value of Rs. 2,00,000 crore (US$45 billion) and may generate 10 to15 million jobs in next 5 years.

This can happen in two forms- 2.5 million of these people may be associated directly with retailing and the rest 10 million people may be gainfully employed in related sectors that will be pulled up through the strong forward and backward linkage effects.

However to compete in this sector one needs to have up-to-date market information for planing and decision making. The second most important requirement is to manage costs widely in order to earn at least normal profits in face of stiff competition.


Information Technology (IT Industry)


The vision of Information Technology(IT) policy is to use IT as a tool for raising the living standards of the common man and enriching their lives. Though, urban India has a high internet density, the government also wants PC and Internet penetration in the rural India.

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In Information technology (IT), India has built up valuable brand equity in the global markets. In IT-enabled services (ITES), India has emerged as the most preferred destination for business process outsourcing (BPO), a key driver of growth for the software industry and the services sector.

India's most prized resource in today's knowledge economy is its readily available technical work force. India has the second largest English-speaking scientific professionals in the world, second only to the U.S.

According the data from ministry of communication and information technology, the ITES-BPO industry has grown by about 54 per cent with export earnings of US$ 3.6 billion during 2003-04. Output of the Indian electronics and IT industry is estimated to have grown by 18.2 per cent to Rs. 1,14,650 crore in 2003-04.

The share of hardware and non-software services in the IT sector has declined consistently every year in the recent past. The share of software services in electronics and IT sector has gone up from 38.7 per cent in 1998-99 to 61.8 percent in 2003-04.

However, there has been some welcome acceleration in the hardware sector with a sharp deceleration in the rate of decline of hardware's share in electronics and IT industry. Output of computers in value terms, for example, increased by 36.0, 19.7 and 57.6 per cent in 2000-01, 2002-03, and 2003-04, respectively.

All the sub-sectors of the non-software component of electronic and IT industry grew at over 8 per cent in 2003-04, but this was far below the rate of growth of software services. Overall, after declining precipitously from 61.4 per cent in 1998-99 to 40.9 percent in 2001-02, the share of hardware in this important industry declined only marginally to 38.2 percent in the two subsequent years.

Export markets continue to dominate the domestic segment. The size of the domestic market in software relative to the export markets for Indian software, which was 45.2 percent in 1998- 99, after declining rapidly to 29.8 percent in 2001-02, fell only to 29.1 percent and 27.7 per cent in the two subsequent years.

Value of software and services export is estimated to have increased by 30 percent to US$12.5 billion in 2003-04. The Software Technology Parks of India have reported software exports of Rs. 31,578 crore (US$ 6,947 million) during April - December 2004- 05 as against Rs. 22,678 crore (US$ 4,913) during the corresponding period last year.

The annual growth rate of India's software exports has been consistently over 50 percent since 1991. No other Indian industry has performed so well against the global competition.

According to a NASSCOM-McKinsey report, annual revenue projections for India?s IT industry in 2008 are US $ 87 billion and market openings are emerging across four broad sectors, IT services, software products, IT enabled services, and e-businesses thus creating a number of opportunities for Indian companies. In addition to the export market, all of these segments have a domestic market component as well.

The IT-enabled service industry in India began to evolve in the early nineties when companies such as American Express, British Airways, GE and Swissair set up their offshore operations in India.

Today a large number of foreign affiliates operate IT-enabled services in India. The different service lines of Itenabled services offshored to India include customer care, finance, human resources, billing and payment services, administration and content development


Tourism Industry in India


The year 2004-05 saw tourism emerging as one of the major sectors for growth of Indian economy, the foreign exchange earnings increased from Rs. 16,429 crore to 21,828 crore up to December.

Similarly in the last year, tourism industry registered a growth rate of 17.3% in foreign tourist arrivals, which has been the highest in last 10 years. Foreign exchange earnings grew at an even higher rate 30.2%.

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India's tourism industry is thriving due to an increase in foreign tourists arrivals and greater than before travel by Indians to domestic and abroad destinations. The visitors are pouring in from all over the world: Europe, Africa, Southeast Asia and Australia.

At the same time, the number of Indians traveling has also increased. Some tourists come from Middle East countries to witness the drenching monsoon rains in India, a phenomenon never seen in desert climates.

Domestic tourists are also fueling the industry's revival. Many of them escape from the summer heat on the plains to resorts in the Himalayan Mountains. One of the major beneficiaries this year is Kashmir, where a cease-fire between India and Pakistan has reduced violence, if not completely, at least enough to help revive the state's sagging tourism industry.

Among the most favoured tourist destinations in India, Kerala for its scenic beauty, Agra for Taj Mahal, Khujraho for its sculptures and temples, Goa for its beaches and some pilgrimages are the most important.

Interesting feature of this growth is that it has come even as global tourism has dropped, due to the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in East Asia, and the Iraq war.

Even the disastrous tsunami didn't affect India's tourism industry, as tourist arrivals in India rose 23.5 percent in Dec 2004 and tourist arrivals crossed 3 million mark for the first time in 2004.. The disaster was expected to have a negative impact on India's tourism in terms of large-scale cancellations of tourists to India but nothing of that sort was seen.

Reasons for this Boom

There could be several reasons for the buoyancy in the Indian tourism industry. First, the upward trend observed in the growth rate of Indian economy has raised middle class incomes, prompting more people to spend money on vacations abroad or at home.

Also, India is booming in the information technology industry and has become the IT center. Aggressive advertising campaign " Incredible India" by the government has also had contribution in changing India's image from that of a land of snake charmers, and sparking new interest among overseas travellers.

Tourism Contribution in Indian Economy

It is not hidden that tourism is among India's important export industries. Even with comparatively low levels of international tourist traffic, tourism has already emerged as an important segment of the Indian economy.

Tourism also contributed to the economy indirectly through its linkages with other sectors like horticulture, agriculture, poultry, handicrafts and construction.

Foreign exchange earnings from tourism during 2003-04 were US $ 3,533 million ( Rs 16,429 crore).

Besides being an important foreign exchange earner, tourism industry also provides employment to millions of people in India both directly and indirectly ( through its linkage with other sectors of the economy.) It is estimated that total direct employment in the tourism sector is around 20 million.


Aviation Industry in India


Aviation Industry in India is one of the fastest growing aviation industries in the world. With the liberalization of the Indian aviation sector, aviation industry in India has undergone a rapid transformation. From being primarily a government-owned industry, the Indian aviation industry is now dominated by privately owned full service airlines and low cost carriers.

Private airlines account for around 75% share of the domestic aviation market. Earlier air travel was a privilege only a few could afford, but today air travel has become much cheaper and can be afforded by a large number of people.

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The origin of Indian civil aviation industry can be traced back to 1912, when the first air flight between Karachi and Delhi was started by the Indian State Air Services in collaboration with the UK based Imperial Airways. It was an extension of London-Karachi flight of the Imperial Airways.

In 1932, JRD Tata founded Tata Airline, the first Indian airline. At the time of independence, nine air transport companies were carrying both air cargo and passengers. These were Tata Airlines, Indian National Airways, Air service of India, Deccan Airways, Ambica Airways, Bharat Airways, Orient Airways and Mistry Airways. After partition Orient Airways shifted to Pakistan.

In early 1948, Government of India established a joint sector company, Air India International Ltd in collaboration with Air India (earlier Tata Airline) with a capital of Rs 2 crore and a fleet of three Lockheed constellation aircraft. The inaugural flight of Air India International Ltd took off on June 8, 1948 on the Mumbai-London air route.

The Government nationalized nine airline companies vide the Air Corporations Act, 1953. Accordingly it established the Indian Airlines Corporation (IAC) to cater to domestic air travel passengers and Air India International (AI) for international air travel passengers. The assets of the existing airline companies were transferred to these two corporations. This Act ensured that IAC and AI had a monopoly over the Indian skies.

A third government-owned airline, Vayudoot, which provided feeder services between smaller cities, was merged with IAC in 1994. These government-owned airlines dominated Indian aviation industry till the mid-1990s.

In April 1990, the Government adopted open-sky policy and allowed air taxi- operators to operate flights from any airport, both on a charter and a non charter basis and to decide their own flight schedules, cargo and passenger fares. In 1994, the Indian Government, as part of its open sky policy, ended the monopoly of IA and AI in the air transport services by repealing the Air Corporations Act of 1953 and replacing it with the Air Corporations (Transfer of Undertaking and Repeal) Act, 1994.

Private operators were allowed to provide air transport services. Foreign direct investment (FDI) of up to 49 percent equity stake and NRI (Non Resident Indian) investment of up to 100 percent equity stake were permitted through the automatic FDI route in the domestic air transport services sector. However, no foreign airline could directly or indirectly hold equity in a domestic airline company.

By 1995, several private airlines had ventured into the aviation business and accounted for more than 10 percent of the domestic air traffic. These included Jet Airways Sahara, NEPC Airlines, East West Airlines, ModiLuft Airlines, Jagsons Airlines, Continental Aviation, and Damania Airways.

But only Jet Airways and Sahara managed to survive the competition. Meanwhile, Indian Airlines, which had dominated the Indian air travel industry, began to lose market share to Jet Airways and Sahara. Today, Indian aviation industry is dominated by private airlines and these include low cost carriers such as Deccan Airlines, GoAir, SpiceJet etc, who have made air travel affordable.

Airline industry in India is plagued with several problems. These include high aviation turbine fuel (ATF) prices, rising labor costs and shortage of skilled labor, rapid fleet expansion, and intense price competition among the players. But one of the major challenges facing Indian aviation industry is infrastructure constraint.

Airport infrastructure needs to be upgraded rapidly if Indian aviation industry has to continue its success story. Some steps have been taken in this direction. Two of India's largest airports-Mumbai and New Delhi-were privatized recently.

Two greenfield airports are coming up at Bangalore and Hyderabad in southern India. Investments are pouring into almost all aspects of the industry, including aircraft maintenance, pilot training and air cargo services. The future prospects of Indian aviation sector look bright.


Insurance Sector in India


Insurance sector in India is one of the booming sectors of the economy and is growing at the rate of 15-20 per cent annum. Together with banking services, it contributes to about 7 per cent to the country's GDP.

Insurance is a federal subject in India and Insurance industry in India is governed by Insurance Act, 1938, the Life Insurance Corporation Act, 1956 and General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act, 1972, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) Act, 1999 and other related Acts.

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The origin of life insurance in India can be traced back to 1818 with the establishment of the Oriental Life Insurance Company in Calcutta. It was conceived as a means to provide for English Widows. In those days a higher premium was charged for Indian lives than the non-Indian lives as Indian lives were considered riskier for coverage.

The Bombay Mutual Life Insurance Society that started its business in 1870 was the first company to charge same premium for both Indian and non-Indian lives. In 1912, insurance regulation formally began with the passing of Life Insurance Companies Act and the Provident Fund Act.

By 1938, there were 176 insurance companies in India. But a number of frauds during 1920s and 1930s tainted the image of insurance industry in India. In 1938, the first comprehensive legislation regarding insurance was introduced with the passing of Insurance Act of 1938 that provided strict State Control over insurance business.

Insurance sector in India grew at a faster pace after independence. In 1956, Government of India brought together 245 Indian and foreign insurers and provident societies under one nationalised monopoly corporation and formed Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) by an Act of Parliament, viz. LIC Act, 1956, with a capital contribution of Rs.5 crore.

The (non-life) insurance business/general insurance remained with the private sector till 1972. There were 107 private companies involved in the business of general operations and their operations were restricted to organised trade and industry in large cities. The General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 nationalised the general insurance business in India with effect from January 1, 1973.

The 107 private insurance companies were amalgamated and grouped into four companies: National Insurance Company, New India Assurance Company, Oriental Insurance Company and United India Insurance Company. These were subsidiaries of the General Insurance Company (GIC).

Insurance sector in India was liberalized in March 2000 with the passage of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) Bill, lifting all entry restrictions for private players and allowing foreign players to enter the market with some limits on direct foreign ownership.

There is a 26 percent equity cap for foreign partners in an insurance company. There is a proposal to increase this limit to 49 percent. The opening up of the insurance sector has led to rapid growth of the sector.

Presently, there are 16 life insurance companies and 15 non-life insurance companies in the market. The potential for growth of insurance industry in India is immense as nearly 80 per cent of Indian population is without life insurance cover while health insurance and non-life insurance continues to be well below international standards.


Media & Entertainment Industry in India


Entertainment Industry in India comprises of Film Industry and Television Industry. The Indian entertainment industry is among the fastest growing sectors in the country. In the past two decades entertainment industry in India has witnessed explosive growth. In television alone, from a single state owned television network, Doordarshan in 1991, today there are over 300 national, regional and local channels being beamed across the country.

Indian film industry is the largest film industry in the world, producing on an average, close to a thousand films a year in all languages. In terms of film production India exceeds Hollywood's production volume by over three times. Some of the fastest growing segments in the Indian entertainment industry include music, cable and satellite television, animation and FM.

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According to an estimate by FICCI and Ernst and Young Indian entertainment industry would worth more than Rs. 400,000 million in 2008. Several positive developments like the accordance of the 'industry' status to the film industry, satellite channel penetration, the retail boom in the channels for music sales (Music World & Planet M), the use of digital technology in all spheres of entertainment and the growth of multiplexes have contributed to the growth of this sector.

Entertainment industry in India is presently in a consolidation phase as boundary lines between films, music and television are fast disappearing. Skills and resources are being pooled extensively. Besides adaptation to high-end digital technology, the entertainment industry is also witnessing rapid development of state-of-the-art studios and post production facilities.

In terms of employment, an estimated 6 million people earn their livelihood from the entertainment industry and this number is all set to grow. Entertainment industry in India is projected to be one of the major economic driving forces of the country.

In India, television is the major segment of entertainment industry. Presently, India has the third largest television market in the world behind only china and the USA. Today, television reaches about hundred million Indian households. India has the world's biggest movie industry in terms of the number of movies produced.

Presently, the technology of film-making in India is perhaps the best among all developing countries. Indian film industry is now increasingly getting professional and a lot of production houses such as Yash Raj Productions, Dharma Productions, Mukta Arts etc. are now working on corporate lines.

The popularity of Indian entertainment industry goes well beyond the geographical frontiers of the country. Indian television channels and films are viewed and enjoyed across the entire South Asia.

Across the Middle East, parts of South East Asia and Africa, large expatriate populations ensure that Indian TV channels and films are a regular part of their entertainment bouquet. In UK and North America (USA and Canada), Indian TV channels and films are increasingly finding a foothold beyond the expatriate pockets as the audience there has started to enjoy and identify with the contemporary Indian culture. Quite a few of Indian filmstars are also getting good offers from Hollywood.

The future prospects of Indian entertainment industry look to be extremely good. As India's profile rises on the global stage outside interest in India's culture and entertainment industry is also bound to grow.


Fashion Industry in India


Fashion Industry in India is in nascent stage at the moment and has great potential to make its mark on the world stage. Indian fashion has thousands of years of tradition behind it. India has a rich and varied textile heritage. Each region of India has its own unique native costume and traditional attire.

Fashion Industry in India is growing at a rapid pace with international events such as the India Fashion Week gaining popularity and annual shows by fashion designers being held in the major cities of India.

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Indian fashion industry got a big boost by the victories of a number of Indian beauty queens in International events such as the Miss World and Miss Universe. Contests such as these made Indian models recognized worldwide. Indian fashion designers such as Ritu Kumar, Ritu Beri, Rohit Bal, Rina Dhaka, Tarun Tahiliani, JJ Valaya and Manish Malhotra have also made their mark in the global fashion arena.

Apart from the rich tradition the strength of the Indian fashion industry also rests on strong raw material availability. India is the third largest producer of cotton, the second largest producer of silk and the fifth largest producer of man-made fibres in the world.

India also possesses large number of skilled human resources and has among the lowest labour costs in the world.

With the end of quota regime on January 1, 2005 the prospects for Indian fashion industry look upbeat. India is among the largest exporters of textile garments and fabrics. The quota regime restricted free export of materials and garments from the developing countries, giving an edge to developed ones.

The regime resulted in unfair trade practices, such as hoarding of licenses for quotas and their eventual sale in the black market, and the shipping of low quality goods to meet contract demands.

There was little incentive for the manufacturers to upgrade and improve either their products or manufacturing abilities. The end of the quota regime heralds the prospects of exponential growth for the fashion industries of countries like India that had faced quota restrictions earlier.

Indian fashion industry needs to take following steps to fulfill its growth potential:

• Indian fashion industry needs to create global image. There are various agencies that can assist in the brandbuilding exercise. The Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC), other textile promotion councils, and industry associations such as Confederation of Indian Industries can market Indian fashion globally.

• Large textiles players must develop linkages with small medium enterprise (SME) clusters. Such networks would be a win-win for textile players that can concentrate on demand creation and branding as well as for clusters that can focus on quality production.

• Indian fashion industry has to forge designer-corporate links as is the norm in global fashion industry.

• There is a large part of the novice designer community, possibly more talented, which remains obscure. Hence there is an urgent need to give exposure to young and budding designers.

If we are able to take the above mentioned issues to their logical conclusion then there is no reason why Indian fashion industry cannot achieve its tremendous potential.


Hotel Industry in India


Hotels are amongst the most visible and important aspects of a country's infrastructure. Hotel industry is a closely linked one to the tourism industry. A number of factors like promotion of tourism and rapid industrial progress have given a boost to hoteliering. The recent liberalisation of trade and opening up of economy will further lead to revolutionary growth in this sector.

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With increasing globalisation, career opportunities in this field are not only limited within the country but there are chains of hotels which operate internationally providing scope of a career abroad.

It is a glamorous profession which has a bright future. With the growth of hotel industry propelled by foreign and domestic tourism and business travel, the demand for well trained quality personnel too has grown impressively.

The diversity of experience in hotel management is greater than in any other profession. Hotel industry involves combination of various skills like management, food and beverage service, housekeeping, front office operation, sales and marketing, accounting. Today, the rise in corporate activity (leading to greater number of business trips) as well as the wish to travel on holiday has made the hotel industry a very competitive one.

In recent years government has taken several steps to boost travel & tourism which have benefited hotel industry in India. These include the abolishment of the inland air travel tax of 15%; reduction in excise duty on aviation turbine fuel to 8%; and removal of a number of restrictions on outbound chartered flights, including those relating to frequency and size of aircraft.

The government's recent decision to treat convention centres as part of core infrastructure, allowing the government to provide critical funding for the large capital investment that may be required has also fuelled the demand for hotel rooms.

The opening up of the aviation industry in India has exciting opportunities for hotel industry as it relies on airlines to transport 80% of international arrivals. The government's decision to substantially upgrade 28 regional airports in smaller towns and privatization & expansion of Delhi and Mumbai airport will improve the business prospects of hotel industry in India.

Substantial investments in tourism infrastructure are essential for Indian hotel industry to achieve its potential. The upgrading of national highways connecting various parts of India has opened new avenues for the development of budget hotels in India. Taking advantage of this opportunity Tata group and another hotel chain called 'Homotel' have entered this business segment.

According to a report, Hotel Industry in India currently has supply of 110,000 rooms and there is a shortage of 150,000 rooms fueling hotel room rates across India. According to estimates demand is going to exceed supply by at least 100% over the next 2 years.

Five-star hotels in metro cities allot same room, more than once a day to different guests, receiving almost 24-hour rates from both guests against 6-8 hours usage. With demand-supply disparity, hotel rates in India are likely to rise by 25% annually and occupancy by 80%, over the next two years. This will affect the competitiveness of India as a cost-effective tourist destination.

To overcome, this shortage Indian hotel industry is adding about 60,000 quality rooms, currently in different stages of planning and development, which should be ready by 2012. Hotel Industry in India is also set to get a fillip with Delhi hosting 2010 Commonwealth Games.

Government has approved 300 hotel projects, nearly half of which are in the luxury range. The future scenario of Indian hotel industry looks extremely rosy. It is expected that the budget and mid-market hotel segment will witness huge growth and expansion while the luxury segment will continue to perform extremely well over the next few years.


Food Processing Industry


The Government of India has stepped forward for strengthening the food processing industry in India.

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) approved a proposal to raise allocation of plan fund from Rs.98.00 crore to Rs.295.00 crore for the Scheme of Technology Upgradation/ Modernization / Establishment of Food Processing Industry (FPI) units during the X Plan period. The enhancement will be met from within the existing X Plan allocation of the Ministry.

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Through this initiative more funds will become available for expenditure under the scheme so as to promote technology up gradation /modernization/ establishment of food processing units in the country.

The scheme will actively be engaged in activities covering all segments viz., fruits & vegetables, milk products, meat, poultry, fishery, oil seeds and such other agri-horticultural sectors leading to value addition and shelf life enhancement including food flavours and colours, oleoresins, spices coconut, mushroom, hops etc.

The major objective of the scheme is to have a cascading and demonstration effect among entrepreneurs for promotion of food processing industries in the country. The scheme also aims at increasing the level of processing, reduction of wastage and value addition.

Through this scheme, assistance is provided to the implementing agencies which include Central / State Government organizations / PSUs / NGOs / Cooperative Societies and private sector units and individuals.

Assistance is given in the form of grant @ 25% of the project cost of plant & machinery and technical civil work subject to a maximum of Rs.50 lakh in General Areas and 33.33% up to Rs.75 lakh in Difficult Areas such as J&K, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, North Eastern States, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshdweep and Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP) areas.



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